In Europe in the seventeenth century, there is a widely circulated philosophical classic: we can never prove that the world exists objectively.
What does this mean? This means that although you eat and drink for Lazari all day, work rest, but all the objective existence you feel, in fact, there is no way to prove that they really exist.
Many people may feel ridiculous: I personally touch books, taste food, and step on the ground. Doesn’t this prove that the world is objective?
In fact, the problem lies in this: According to philosophical theory, how do you prove that your senses are not deceiving?
We know that sugar is sweet, but this news is conveyed by taste buds; we know that peppers are pungent, but the news is conveyed by the sense of smell.
If we have eaten sugar and peppers, then even if there is no sugar and peppers in front of us, we will still recall their taste. How can we explain?
Regarding this issue, the great philosopher of France in the 17th century
The gentleman did a famous experiment: thought experiment.
This experiment is more complicated, just summarize two points:
1. General doubt;
Second, unknown theory.
It is generally doubtful that everyone should “completely clean up all their opinions in their lives.”
We can make a hypothesis: what will happen if virtual equipment is popular now?
When you have never eaten apples and have no money to buy apples, virtual devices will simulate the taste of apples and let you lie on the instrument to experience the feeling of eating apples.
After the experience, the staff gave you a real apple again. When you eat Apple, you find that there is no difference between the two apples.
So the question is, how many apples did you eat?
Descartes’ summary was: At this time I felt that I was sitting by the fireplace, but suddenly woke up and found that I was dreaming. In this way, it is difficult to distinguish it. Whether I really sit by the fireplace or dream of sitting on the fireplace. – “Records of Western Philosophy History”
This statement may be fresh for the French in the 17th century, but it is not fresh at all for us Chinese, because Zhuang Zhou, who lives in BC, left the “Zhuang Zhou Mengdie” allusions.
Maybe some people disagree with this view: We can take care of the gastroscopy and see how many apples are inside. Isn’t it clear at a glance?
But what can this explain? What your eyes see are synchronized with the material of the world. In other words, what you can see is just the material world, but who dares to say that this world is true?
At this point, there is a bit of rogue: according to this, there is no material in the world that can be confirmed. Is the whole world fake?
Descartes is also confused about this issue.
Descartes thought for a long time and had no clue at all, so he changed his thinking direction and asked himself another question: Is there anything that I can’t doubt it?
Thinking of this, Descartes was suddenly cheerful, and one thing was completely ca n’t doubt, that is, doubt itself.
This is actually what we are talking about now: I expressed doubt about “I am suspicious”, which proves that I am doubting; I am doubting that “I am suspicious of” I am suspicious “.” , Explain that I am doubting my doubt …
The descendants and grandchildren are infinite.
This statement may be a bit funny and a little bit mouthful, so Cartesian made a summary in a simple and clear words: Je Pense, Donc Je Suis.
Translated into Chinese is “I think, so I am”.
This means that because I am thinking, as long as I doubt whether I am thinking, it proves that I am thinking. As long as I keep thinking, it proves that I exist.
So “I think, so I am” can actually be said to be “I suspect, so I am.”
Regarding the unknown, Descartes went further. He believed: “My thoughts prove that I exist, but it does not mean that my body really exists, because we cannot prove that the world is objective.”
The opposite of the existence of the spiritual existence of objective facts is used to prove that the existence of material existence can only be proved by the existence of the spirit. —— “The theory of Performance”
For Descartes’ argument, there is no lack of supporters in history. Elon Musk, the well -known PayPal founder, once said: We are likely to live in the real world of only one percent.
In my opinion, the purpose of Descartes is to find out the Descartes of the parallel world to prove that he does exist, but as the brain’s thinking continues to diverge, he finally moves from “doubt” to the extreme “unknown” extreme. Essence
Regarding Descartes’ philosophical theory, Kant and others in the later generations have repeatedly criticized, thinking that Descartes is purely drinking and nonsense.
I respect the great gods such as Kant, but I still think that Descartes’ thinking is valuable, because most of us have doubts like Descartes: Is the whole world a dream?
There is no accurate answer to this question. We can neither prove that this statement makes sense, and it cannot also prove that this statement is unreasonable.
In the American drama “Western World”, the planner Bernard was controlled by code, but he was always unaware and was addicted to the grand topic of “how to make robots have human feelings”.
Many people’s views on philosophy are polarized: one faction believes that philosophy is the ultimate theory of explaining the world, and the other thinks that philosophy is just the so -called “discipline” that the nobles do not eat enough food, and they are idle.
In my opinion, the correct positioning of philosophy should be “useless learning”: it cannot help you promotes salary and increase, let alone health and longevity.
It gives us another perspective of looking at the world, allowing us to be so rational and calm as possible.