Technical essence of turning processing experience, these foundations are the necessary condition for you to become a master
Introduction: Driven refers to the processing of car lathes is part of mechanical processing. The lathe processing mainly uses a car knife to cut the rotating workpiece. The lathe is mainly used for processing shafts, disks, sets, and other workpieces with rotation surfaces. It is the most widely used machine tool processing in mechanical manufacturing and repair factories.
The technology of the car is not finished, and the most common car worker does not require too high technology. It can be divided into 5 types of car workers. This is the most common in society.
1. Ordinary machinery car workers, easy to learn, find a lathe processing department, better than you study at school
2. Mold car workers, especially plastic mold precision cars! Strict requirements for tools and accurate size
You need to know what steel’s upper light is good, that is, the mirror surface
Is the product of this set of molds ABS or other materials. The scalability of the plastic parts is a few silk === Many common knowledge, rubber puree is an essential tool for this car worker! Intersection Intersection
The cleanliness of the car is good, easy to polish, and achieves the mirror effect. It requires a plastic mold foundation. 4 claws are commonly used. Generally, several templates are added to the car. Plastic mold thread knowledge must be mastered! High difficulty!
3. Knife car workers, processing re -cuttings, drills, alloy knife plates == knife -tool drying, this car worker is the simplest, the best, the most tiring
Usually, it is large -scale production. The most commonly used is the double top, the car cones, and the amount of flow. The fastest and the simplest and the simplest are reduced to minimize the wear of the tool, because the product processed by this car is not as hard as your whitening products. How low is the steel knife! The quality of your alloy knife is completely affected your achievements! Intersection
4. Large -scale equipment car workers, such car workers have senior technology, young people basically dare not cars! Intersection
Teach more when you stand on the car. example:
In a crankshaft of the car, you must first look at the drawing of the drawing first.
5. CNC carrier, the simplest and most difficult for this car worker. First of all, you have to look at drawings, programming, converting formulas, and tool applications! Intersection Intersection
As long as you master the theory of the car worker and have certain mathematics, mechanical, CAD knowledge to learn quickly.
1 Brief interpretation
It is on the lathe, using the rotation motion of the workpiece and the straight line motion of the tool or curve motion to change the shape and size of the blank, and process it into the requirements of the drawings.
Driving processing is a method of cutting the workpiece on the lathe using the workpiece to rotate the workpiece. The cutting of the turning processing is mainly provided by the workpiece rather than a tool. Driven is the most basic and most common method of cutting and processing, and occupies a very important position in production. Driving is suitable for processing the surface of the process. Most of the workpieces with the turning surface can be processed by a turning method, such as the inner and outer cylindrical surface, the inner and outer cone surface, the end surface, the groove, the thread, and the rotation forming surface.
Among various metal cutting machine tools, the lathe is the most widely used category, accounting for about 50%of the total number of machine tools. The lathe can be carried out by the workpiece with a knife, but also the drills, re -blades, taps, and flower knives for drilling, rectus, attack threads, and flowers. According to the characteristics of process, layout form, and structural characteristics, the lathe can be divided into horizontal lathe, landing lathe, vertical lathe, tower lathes, and imitation lathes, most of which are residential lathes
Drivery processing is the most widely used in the machine manufacturing industry. The number of lathes is large, many personnel, and wide processing scope. There are many tools and cards used. The key work is as follows:
1. Dandruff damage and protection measures. The toughness of various steel parts processed on the lathe is better. Dedication produced during turning is rich in plastic curls, and the edges are relatively sharp. When high -speed cutting steel parts, red -hot and long dandruff will be formed, which is very easy to hurt people. At the same time, it is often wrapped around the workpiece, car knife and knife rack. It should be removed from time to time, but it is absolutely not allowed to remove or pull off with your hands. In order to prevent dandruff damage, dandruff, control of dandruff flow to control, and various protective baffles are set up. The measures for broken dandruff are to grind the crumbs or steps on the car knife; the proper dandruff device is used, and the mechanical card solid tool is used.
2. Installation of workpieces. During the process of turning, it was a number of accidents that damaged machine tools, broken or broken knives, and the workpiece dropped or flying out of the injury due to the improper installation of the workpiece. Therefore, in order to ensure the safety production of aircraft processing, it must be paid special attention when installing the card workpiece. For parts with different sizes and shapes, the appropriate card must be used. Regardless of the connection of three -claws, four -claw cards, or dedicated cards and the main axis, it must be stable and reliable. For the workpiece, the card is positive and the card is tight. The large workpiece card is tightly available to the sleeve to ensure that when the workpiece rotates high -speed and cuts the force, it does not shift, does not fall off, and does not throw it out. If necessary, you can use top, center frame and other enhanced card solids. Immediately after the stuck, remove the move.
3. Safety operation. Check the machine tools before work to confirm that it is good to use. The installation card of the workpiece and tools guarantees correct and firm and reliable. During the processing process, the tool, loading and unloading workpiece and measurement workpiece must be stopped. When rotating, the workpiece shall not touch or wipe it with cotton. It is necessary to choose the cutting speed, feed volume, and depth of force, and not to be overloaded. The bedside, knife rack and bed should not be placed on the workpiece, work card and other debris. When using a knife, move the knife to the safe position. The right hand is in front and the left hand is behind to prevent the sleeve from being involved in. The machine tool must be responsible for use and maintenance, and other personnel shall not use it.
The processing process of CNC lathes is similar to the processing process of ordinary lathes, but because CNC lathes are one -time fixture, all the car cuts are continuously processed, so pay attention to the following aspects.
1. Reasonable selection of cutting dosage:
For high -efficiency metal cutting processing, processing materials, cutting tools, and cutting conditions are three major elements. These determine the processing time, knife life and processing quality. Economic and effective processing methods must be reasonably selected. Three elements of cutting conditions: cutting speed, feed, and depth directly cause the knife damage. With the increase of cutting speed, the tip temperature of the knife will rise, which will generate mechanical, chemical, and heat wear. The cutting speed is increased by 20%, and the life of the tool will decrease by 1/2. The grinding relationship between the feed conditions and the latter of the tool is generated within a small range. However, the amount of feed is large, the cutting temperature rises, and the later wear is large. It has less impact on the cutting speed on the cutting speed. Although the impact of depth on the tool does not have a large cutting speed and a large amount of feed, when the tiny cut is deep, the cutting material produces hardening layer, which will also affect the life of the tool. Users should choose the cutting speed used according to the processing materials, hardness, cutting status, type of material, feed, and depth. The selection of the most suitable processing conditions is selected on the basis of these factors. The regular and stable wear to achieve life is the ideal condition. However, in actual operations, the choice of knife life is related to the wear of the knife, changes in processing size, surface quality, cutting noise, and processing calories. When determining the processing conditions, research needs to be carried out according to the actual situation. For difficulty processing materials such as stainless steel and heat -resistant alloy, coolant can be used or a rigid blade can be used.
(1) When rough cars, choose a knife with high intensity and good durability to meet the requirements of eating the knife and large amount of feed when the rough cars.
(2) When a stainless vehicle, select a tool with high accuracy and good durability to ensure the requirements for processing accuracy.
(3) In order to reduce the time and convenient knife, you should try to use the knife and the blade of the machine as much as possible.
(1) Try to choose a universal fixture fixture to avoid using a dedicated fixture;
(2) Research on the benchmark of the parts to reduce the positioning error.
(1) It should be able to ensure the processing accuracy and rough surface requirements;
(2) Short the processing route as much as possible to reduce the knife’s empty itinerary time.
At present, under the conditions of a CNC lathe, it is generally necessary to arrange too much balance on the blank, especially the margin containing forging and cast -casting the hard cortex. If you must use CNC lathes, you need to pay attention to the flexible arrangement of the program.
At present, the connection of the hydraulic card and the hydraulic clamping oil cylinder is implemented by*pull rods. The main points of the hydraulic card clamping point are as follows: First use the hand to remove the nuts on the hydraulic oil cylinder, remove the pull tube, and remove it from the back of the main axis. Then Use your hand to remove the crack fixed screw, you can remove the cartridge
3 GE Code
GM Code of GM (JB/T9168.2-1998)
Car knife clamp
1) The knife and knife pole should not be too long. Generally, the length should not exceed 1.5 times the height of the knife pole (except the car holes, grooves, etc.)
2) The center line of the car knife and knife should be vertically or parallel to the direction of the knife.
(1) When the end surface of the car, the car surface of the car, the thread of the car, the car forming surface, and the cutting off the solid workpiece, the tip of the knife should generally be equal to the axis of the workpiece.
(2) The coarse -car outer circular, stainless car holes, and knife tip should generally be slightly higher than the axis of the workpiece.
(3) When the vehicle is long, the coarse holes, and the hollow workpiece are cut off, the tip of the knife should generally be slightly lower than that of the workpiece axis.
4) The division line of the sharp corner of the thread knife and knife shall be vertically perpendicular to the axis of the workpiece.
5) When installing a car knife, the pads under the knife rod should be flat and flat, and the screws of the car knife should be tightened.
Instant clamping of workpieces
1) When using a three -claws to make a cock or a stainless vehicle with a triple -claws, if the workpiece diameter is less than 30㎜, the extension length should not be more than 5 times the diameter. The length should not be more than 3 times the diameter.
2) When using four -claw single -mounted cards, flower plates, corner iron (curve), etc., when you install irregular workpieces, you must allocate weight.
3) When processing axis workpiece at the top, adjust the top axis of the tail seat before cutting.
4) When processing a long axis between the two tips, the heel or center frame should be used. During the processing process, pay attention to adjusting the top tightness, and the top and center frame should be paid attention to lubrication.
5) When using the tail seat, the sleeve should be shortened as much as possible to reduce vibration.
6) When installing a small and high -height workpiece on the vertical vehicle, the height claws should be used, and the workpiece is added to the appropriate part.
7) When the carblades and set casting forging are not processed, they should be found according to the surface of non -processing to ensure that the wall thickness of the workpiece is uniform after processing.
1) When the rigidity of the steps is cut, in order to ensure the rigidity of the turning, the part with a large diameter of the first car should generally be the part with a small diameter of the car.
2) When cutting the groove on the axis workpiece, it should be performed before the stainless car to prevent the workpiece from deforming.
3) When the stainless vehicle is a shaft with a thread, it should generally have no threading part after the thread processing.
4) Before drilling, the workpiece should be flat. If necessary, you should first play the central hole.
5) When drilling deep holes, first drill the pores.
6) In the holes of the turning (φ10 -φ20) ㎜, the diameter of the knife rod should be 0.6-0.7 times the diameter of the processing pores; when the processing diameter is greater than φ20㎜, the knife rod should be used for a clip knife head.
7) When cutting the multi -head thread or multi -headed worm, adjust the switching gear and try it.
8) When using an automatic car lathe, adjust the card according to the machine tool to adjust the relative position of the tool and workpiece. After the adjustment, the trial car should be performed. You can process it after the first pass. Spend.
9) When cutting on the vertical lathe, when the blade is adjusted, you must not move the beam at will.
10) When there are position tolerance requirements on the surface of the workpiece, try to complete the turning in a fiber.
11) When the cylindrical gear tooth billet is cut, the hole and the reference end surface must be processed in a clamp. If necessary, the marker line near the gear division of the end surface should be produced.
44 error compensation
Modern machinery manufacturing technology is moving towards high efficiency, high -quality, high -precision, high integration and high intelligence direction. Precision and ultra -precision processing technology have become the most important component and development direction in modern machinery manufacturing, and have become key technologies for improving international competitiveness. With the widespread application of precision processing, the turbulent processing error has also become a popular topic of research. Because of the various errors of the machine tool, the thermal error and geometric errors occupy the vast majority, so the thermal errors, especially the heat errors, have become the main goals. Error Compensation Technjque (ECT) has emerged and developed with the continuous development of science and technology. The loss caused by the deformation of the machine tool is quite large. Therefore, it is extremely necessary to develop high -precision and low -cost heat error compensation system that can meet the actual production requirements of the factory to correct the heat error between the main axis (or workpiece) and the cutting tool to improve the processing accuracy of the machine tools, reduce waste products, increase production efficiency and production efficiency and Economic benefits.
Basic definition and characteristics of error compensation
The basic definition of error compensation is to artificially create a new error to offset or greatly weaken the original error that is currently becoming a problem. By analyzing, statistical, induction, and grasping the characteristics and laws of the original error, establish an error mathematical model, try to make people do as much as possible The error caused by the original error is equal and the direction is opposite, thereby reducing the processing error and improving the size accuracy of the parts.
The earliest error compensation was achieved through hardware. Hardware compensation is a mechanical fixed compensation. When the machine tool error changes, the amount of compensation must be changed. Hardware compensation has the disadvantages that cannot solve random errors and lack of flexibility. The recent development of software compensation is characterized by the use of the machine tool itself without any changes, and comprehensively use advanced technologies and computer control technology of contemporary disciplines to improve the processing accuracy of machine tool processing. Software compensation overcomes many difficulties and shortcomings of hardware compensation, and pushes compensation technology to a new stage.
Error compensation (technology) has two main characteristics: science and engineering.
The rapid development of scientific error compensation technology has greatly enriched the theory of precision mechanical design, precision measurement, and the entire precision engineering, and has become an important branch of this discipline. Technologies related to error compensation include detection technology, sensing technology, signal processing technology, photoelectric technology, material technology, computer technology, and control technology. As a new technology branch, error compensation technology has its own independent content and characteristics. Further research error compensation technology to make it theoretical and systematic, which will have very important scientific significance.
The engineering significance of the engineering error compensation technology is very significant. It contains 3 layers of meaning: one is to use error compensation technology to easily achieve the accuracy level that can be achieved by “hard technology”; second, error compensation is used to use error compensation compensation Technology can solve the accuracy level that “hard technology” is usually unable to reach; third, if the error compensation technology is used under the condition of meeting certain accuracy requirements, it can greatly reduce the cost of instrument and equipment manufacturing, and has very significant economic benefits.
Driven processing thermal error occurred and classified
With the further improvement of the accuracy requirements of the machine tool, the proportion of thermal errors in the total error will continue to increase, and the heat deformation of the machine tool has become the main obstacle to improve the processing accuracy. The thermal error of the machine tool is mainly caused by the thermal deformation of the machine tool components caused by the thermal source of the inside and outside of the machine tools such as motor, bearings, transmission parts, hydraulic systems, environmental temperatures, and coolant. The geometric errors from machine tools come from the manufacturing defects of the machine tool, the coordination error between the machine tool components, the movement of the machine tool component, and the static change position, and so on.
Basic method of error compensation compensation
Thermal deformation error;
Machine components and structures of the structure;
Error caused by cutting force;
Darration error of knife;
Other errors, such as servo errors in machine tool axis, CNC interpolation algorithm error, and so on.
The error prevention method is an attempt to eliminate or reduce possible error sources through the design and manufacturing pathway. The error prevention method is effective to a certain extent on reducing thermal source temperature, balanced temperature field, and reducing thermal deformation of the machine tool. But it cannot completely eliminate thermal deformation, and the cost is expensive;
The application thermal error compensation law has opened up an effective way to improve the accuracy of machine tools and economy.
The study of turbulent processing errors is the most important component and development direction in modern machinery manufacturing, and it has become a key technology to improve international competitiveness. skills requirement.
Error compensation technology can meet the high accuracy and low cost of the actual production requirements of the factory. The heat error compensation technology can correct the hot drift error between the main axis (or workpiece) and the cutting tool, improve the processing accuracy of machine tools, reduce waste products, increase production efficiency and economy economy benefit.
5 Common questions
When a large car lathe, when a powerful screw spar, the bed saddle vibrates sometimes. For those who are light, the processing surface generates ripples, and the knife is broken. When cutting off, students often have swords or cuts. There are many reasons for the above problems. Now we mainly analyze this phenomenon and solution through the stress situation of the tool.
1 The cause and cause of the problem
We know: When the thread with a smaller screw is smaller, the cutting method is generally adopted (in the direction of the workpiece axis as a straight line in the axis of the workpiece); when the threads with a large pitch of the car screw are used The cutting method (to make the thread knife cut with left and right cut blades by moving the small skateboard).
During the turning thread, the movement of the bed saddle is achieved by the rotation of the long screw drive the movement of the opening and closing nut. There is a shaft gap at the bearing of the long script, and there is also a shaxic gap between the long screw and the opening of the nut. When using the left and right knife cutting method to cut the right rotation snail cut with the right main blade, the tool bear the power of the workpiece to give it, (ignore the friction between the chips and the front knife surface, as shown in Figure 1), and decompose the power P as the p. The axial division force PX and the radial force are clever. Among them, the axial division PX is the same as the feed direction of the tool. The tool transmits this axial force PX to the bed saddle, thereby promoting the bed saddle to the side of the gap on the side of the gap. As a fast and fierce back and forth, the result is to move the knife back and forth, and make the processing surface generate ripples, or even break the knife. However, there is no such phenomenon when cutting with the left main blade. When the left main blade is cut, the axial force PX that the knife is affected is opposite to the direction of the process. Essence
When cutting off, the movement of the medium skateboard is achieved by the rotation of the medium skateboard bars drive the movement of the nut. There is an axial gap at the bearing of the wire, and there is also axial gap between the screw and the nut. When cutting on the lathe, the front knife surface (with the front angle) to bear the power P given by the workpiece (ignore the friction of the chips and the front knife surface, as shown in Figure 2), decompose the power P to PZ and The radial division is clever. Among them, the radial score is the same as the feed direction of the cutting knife, pointing to the workpiece, pushing the tool in the workpiece, which will drive the middle skateboard to the direction of the gap, so that the cutting knife suddenly artificially ties artificially artificially artificially manually manually Pieces, causing tie (broken) knives or workpieces to bend.
When the pitch of the car screw is large, the thread of the cutting method of the left and right knives is used, in addition to adjusting the related parameters of the lathe, the gap between the bed saddle and the bed guide rail should be adjusted to make it slightly tighter to increase the movement of the movement when moving the movement. Friction and reduce the possibility of bed saddle moving, but this gap cannot be tightly tight, it is advisable to shake the bed saddle steadily.
Adjust the gap between the middle skateboard and try to minimize the gap; adjust the tightness of the small skateboard to make it slightly tighter to prevent the car knife shift when the car is cut. Try to shorten the length of the workpiece and knife rod, and try to cut the left main blade as much as possible; when cutting with the right main blade, reduce the amount of carrier with the knife; , To reduce the axial force PX that the knife is affected. Theoretically, the larger the front corner of the right main blade, the better.
6 car knife blade grinding operation formula
The types and materials of commonly used car blades, the selection of the sand wheels in the five categories of commonly used car blades. The cutting is different. The outer circular inner holes and threads are commonly used. There are three types of car blade blade. , Common carbon steel alumina, hard alloy silicon carbide, selection of sand wheels according to the material; sand wheel particle granularity, different thickness of the thickness; coarse sand wheel grinding a rough car knife, a fine sand wheel.
7 car knife blade grinding operation skills and precautions
Check the blade grind first to check, the equipment is the most important; after the speed of the sand wheel is stable, hold the knife and stand on the side of the wheel with both hands; the elbow is clamped at the waist, and the blade grind is smooth and anti -shake; the height of the car must be controlled. The sand wheel is moderate, and the reaction force is too large and easy to slip; the handheld knife is uniformly moved, and the warm and hot hands are temporarily left; the knife is carefully carried to protect the tip of the knife first; Do not quench the alloy water, and the sudden cold can easily crack the tool; stop grinding first and then stop.
890 °, 75 °, 45 ° and other outer round car blade grinding steps
The rough grinding first grinds the back of the master, and the tail is biased to the left; the head of the knife is 38 degrees, forming the back corner rubbing; then grind the back and back, and finally grind the front knife surface; The order of the rear essence is clear; Seeking, the angle is correct; the model angle ruler is checked, and the experience is rich and visible.
In order to answer your doubts, the above is what we have organized about CNC machining metal parts lathe parts with ODM and OEM service, hope it can help you.