Occupational sanitary design of garbage incineration power generation projects
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Arctic Star Garbage Power Generation News: Abstract: In all aspects of the entire process of waste incineration, and during the entire work process, there will be many factors that endanger the human body. This article cuts into the factors of occupational disease hazards from waste incineration power generation projects, analyzes the harmful factors, and explores different degrees of harm. On this basis Reference of certain value.
Keywords: domestic waste; incineration power generation; occupational disease hazards; noise; chemical poison; dust; high temperature; biological factors
Traditional garbage recycling methods such as classified recycling, compost and landfill can no longer meet the rapid development of social and economic needs, and domestic waste has brought increasingly serious harm. The country has continuously promoted the waste incineration power generation projects to harmlessly treat domestic waste. This type of project not only has complicated craftsmanship, but also causes occupational disease hazards to staff in the process. How to analyze and recognize these hazards and take scientific measures for protection are current key research topics.
1. Distribution of occupational disease hazards
1. Professional disease hazard factors and distribution during the production process
The production process of waste incineration projects is by garbage receiving storage and transportation system, garbage combustion system, garbage waste heat utilization system, flue gas purification system, fly ash and slag treatment system, compressed air system, automatic control system, chemical water treatment system, test analysis analysis System, machine repair system, water supply system, sewage treatment system, and electrical system. In these process links, different physical and chemical hazards will occur, such as noise, dust, toxic compounds, inorganic compounds, pathogenic microorganisms.
2. The harmful factors in the production environment
The harmful factors in the production environment include the high temperature climate in the natural environment and the unreasonable production process due to the lack of negative pressure in the junk storage pit.
3. Harmful factors in the labor process
During the labor process, frequent intermittent night shift operations will cause labor discomfort syndrome; seats and display design do not meet the principle of human mechanical and effectiveness, which will cause staff back pain, neck and shoulder wrist syndrome, visual fatigue, vision fatigue, and visual fatigue, visual fatigue, and vision fatigue, and visual fatigue. Related work diseases such as carpal tunnel syndrome.
4. Professional disease hazards and distribution of occupational diseases
An open -air mechanical operations such as template binding, pile, digging, concrete watering, pipeline rust cleaning, metal container, circuit installation and punching will produce dust, noise, high, and ultraviolet rays; welding and paint operations will cause welding tobacco, organic solvents, organic solvents, and organic solvents. , Chemical poisons such as carbon monoxide; installation of equipment such as reaction towers, furnaces, closed storage tanks and other equipment will cause closed space operations and harm the human body.
5. Special assignment Occupational disease hazard factors identification
Special operations include the operations of welding operations, closed space operations, dredging operations, and homework during interfaces, pipelines, tanks, valves and other leaks. These special operations will produce welding arc light, sand wheel dust, welding smoke dust, manganese and inorganic compounds , Noise, high temperature, hypoxia suffocation, dust and other harmful factors.
Second, analysis of the hazard of occupational disease hazards
1. Analysis of dust hazards
The test results show that the danger of dust mainly comes from the silicon dust of the slag car loading port with a severe limit of over -limit. The production process failed to be completely sealed, and dust and mist were generated in the ash slab pits after cooling. These dusts will seriously endanger workers’ health.
2. Analysis of chemical poison hazards
The organic matter of the garbage storage pit, an osmotic liquid tank, and the seepage liquid treatment system will degrade to produce toxic gases such as hydrogen sulfide; the garbage combustion tail gas contains toxic gases such as carbon dioxide; Frequent contact with acid -base reagents; high temperature combustion of garbage form heavy metal smoke and a large number of two evil heroes. Once these chemicals are not handled well, they will directly threaten the health of the staff.
3. Analysis of noise hazards
Various types of garbage transport vehicles, machinery and equipment, motor equipment, ventilation equipment, exhaust equipment and other normal work will produce obvious noise, which has become one of the main factors for staff’s health hazards. In addition to the shock absorption treatment of major noise equipment and sound insulation treatment on the spot, protective earplugs need to be provided to reduce the impact of noise on the health of workers.
4. Analysis of high temperature hazards
A large number of high -temperature gases generated by high -temperature equipment such as boilers, as well as high -temperature climate under natural conditions, will be harmful to a certain extent. Fortunately, there is no long -term operation of the staff near the high temperature thermal original equipment. It only needs to be inspected. This can reduce the impact of high temperature and thermal radiation on the health of the staff to a certain extent.
5. Analysis of the harm of the industrial frequency electric field
The industrial frequency electric field will be generated during the sound fields such as substations, power distribution rooms, high -voltage power transmission, and in -field substations. It is necessary to set up shielding and mechanical exhaust devices in order Harm.
3. Design of occupational disease protection facilities
1. Design of occupational disease hazards of garbage reception, storage and transportation system
The unloading platform unloading hall adopts a fully enclosed structure, the ground is cleaned by the ground, the cleaning personnel do a good job of individual protection, the door is equipped with an air screen, the garbage truck is compressed and closed is a truck. Essence The garbage storage pit must be completely sealed, the garbage pool is sealed and slightly negative, and the pumping channel is provided in the upper part. The unloading hall has sewage derivative ditch and exhaust device. The six doors are deodorized, and the operating room has good ventilation conditions. The operator’s daily work do a good job of individual protection.
2. Design of Protection Facilities of Occupational Diseases of Burning System
The incineration furnace uses the tilt -up push -push -type mechanical furnace combustion technology and advanced DCS control technology to perform automatic production, and the staff adopt inspection operations. The burning furnace helps one wind from the upper part of the fans from the upper part of the garbage tank. The secondary wind is extracted from the top of the incinerator from the top of the incinerator. Each incinerator is equipped with a side wall cooling fan. After cooling in the sink of the residue, the residue machine is directly discharged into the slag pit.
3. Design of protective facilities of the occupational disease hazards of the residual heat utilization system
Where the central control room enables operating managers to concentrate, the doors and windows need to set up sound absorption measures to reduce the harm of noise to the human body. During the work of the boiler, you should pay attention to the control of smoke and noise. Generally, facilities such as shock absorbers, mufflers, and sound insulation screens are used. When inspecting the staff, we must wear protective earplugs.
4. Protection measures for occupational disease hazards of the flue gas purification system
The refined smoke system should do measures such as dust removal, removing acid gas, deodorizing, purifying heavy metal pollutants, and scientific methods to effectively reduce the harm of pollutants and compounds in the flue gas purification system to the human body.
5. Protective facilities for professional disease hazards of flyy ash and slag treatment system
Burning ash must be collected separately. The ash leakage of the incineration furnace requires landfilling to avoid secondary dust. During the transportation of the residue car, it is necessary to be closed to prevent the dust from flying. Counter -time delivery workshop is treated for treatment, and personnel entering the cement workshop ash library should do a good job of individual protection.
6. Design of protective facilities for occupational disease hazards of auxiliary production facilities
The chemical water treatment system is added by automatic drug adding equipment; the laboratory is set up to test the wind cabinet, the low noise pump equipment is selected, and the mechanical ventilation facilities are set up with the pharmaceutical room. Facilities and other places in the sewage treatment system should take anti -seepage and corrosion measures. The maintenance and maintenance of the machine repair system clarify the protection measures for occupational poisoning. The electrical system adopts automated control, and on -site personnel adopt inspection operations to reduce contact time. Each link is set up with shock absorption and sound antihypertensive facilities, and inspectors are equipped with anti -virus masks, earplugs, antichen and alkali gloves and other equipment.
7. Protection measures for other occupational disease hazards
To formulate job operation procedures, we should take measures to prevent the risk of preventing materials from leakage risks for natural disasters, high temperatures such as environmental disasters, high temperatures such as environmental disasters. At the same time, inspection and maintenance need to be strengthened during the production process, and the equipment is strictly prevents equipment aging due to its toxic materials leakage. Staff should strengthen training to avoid accidents.
8. Establish an emergency rescue command agency for occupational disease hazards
The emergency rescue team of occupational disease hazards must be established to clarify rescue work regulations and personnel responsibilities, and improve the setting of emergency rescue facilities, including water supply, power supply, transportation, medical care, safety, fire protection, and necessary working facilities. The rescue office is located at the work site to deal with the safety or harm accidents that may occur in the work in a timely manner. Working groups also need to bear the intelligence of daily training and drills, as well as the function of performing occupational disease prevention and management in vocational health management institutions under its jurisdiction.
Conclusion: In short, there will be many occupational disease hazards in the working environment and process of waste incineration power generation projects. Under the premise of implementing the national and industry related health protection standards, specifications, and regulations, the occupational health management system and emergency rescue measures are improved. As well as auxiliary design and personal protective supplies, the degree of harm to minimizes as much as possible.
 Su Shibiao, Jin Yali, Liu Ming. Application of hazard analysis and key control points in the prevention and control of occupational disease hazards in a shoe -making enterprise [J]. China Vocational Medicine, 2012, 39 (3)
 Li Xudong, Zou Jianming, Su Shibiao. Analysis of key control points and prevention and control measures at the storage and transportation terminal ［J］. China Vocational Medicine, 2013, 40 (2)
 Ministry of Environmental Protection. State Administration of Quality Supervision and Inspection and Quarantine. GB 18485-2014 Standards for Control of Domestic waste incineration pollution [S]. Beijing: China Environmental Science Press, 2014.
 Cao Lei, Xue Cheng, Wang Yonglin. Evaluation of Occupational Disease Control of Xuzhou Waste incineration Power Plant Construction Projects ［J］. China Health Enterprise Studies, 2010, 6 (9)
Original title: Occupational sanitation design of garbage incineration power generation projects
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