In the recommended reading list for primary school students, “Last year’s Tree” is indispensable. It is planned to be a collection of works, which includes a fairy tales written by Japanese children’s literature writer New Mei South Ji. Xinmei Nanji was bumpy in his life. When he died in 1943, he was only 30 years old, but left a lot of classic beautiful fairy tales such as “Last year’s Tree” and “Little Fox Aquan”.
In the Japanese children’s literature world, there is a saying that “there is Gong Zezhi in the north and the south of the south”, which means that the two of them are one north and one south, constitute the double stories of Japanese literature. The two of them also have many similarity. They died early on the year, and they were single for life; only two books were published when they were alive, and they only received high evaluation after their death; readers who liked them increased more than time; they did not receive too much in children’s literary creation. Bonding, and so on.
With the wealth of the plot of the rich and twists and turns, the work of Ninomei Nanji has been standing in the children’s stand and deeply rooted in the children’s heart. Readers are children and not literary youths. Therefore, today’s fairy tales must work hard to restore the story.
Today, we will enter the fifth issue of the “Children’s Book” column -Xinmei Nanji.
New Mei Nanji (1913-1943).
The story of every child read
Whether in Japan or China, Nangji Nangji is a fairy tale author of “every child read”. In Japan, since 1980, the fairy tale “Little Fox Aquan” has been included in the fourth grade Chinese textbook. In China, “Last year” was included in the third grade Chinese textbook textbook. The story of “Little Fox Aquan” and “Little Fox Buy Gloves” is also known by more kindergarten children.
It is also about the story of the fox getting along with humans. In “Little Fox Aquan” and “Little Fox Buy Gloves”, the fate of the two little fox is completely different.
The naughty little fox A Quan stole the eels that soldiers were easy to catch. Ten days later, the soldiers of the soldiers died, and A Quan thought that it was the eel who had killed the soldiers and died. The loss of the mothers who lost each other’s life, and also made Aquan think of himself who lived alone in the world alone.
In order to make up for his guilt and to comfort the ten, Aquan went to steal the sardines of fishermen, pick chestnuts and matsutake, and secretly put them in front of the tenth. The soldiers were unknown, and they thought it was God’s gift.
Be careful to put chestnuts on the little fox A Quan in front of the ten soldiers. Selected from the love tree children’s book “Little Fox Aquan”, illustrating Black Well Jian.
When A Quan sent chestnuts to the door again, Bing Shi thought, “The fox who stole my eel before was here to make trouble”, took out the gunpowder gun …
When A Quan fell, Bing Shi saw the chestnut in his arms.
The story of “Little Fox Buy Gloves” happened in the cold northern winter forest. The little fox who saw the snow was played in the snow for the first time and frozen his hands. The fox mother is worried about the little fox, and she wants to go to the town where human beings live in the town of human beings to buy him a warm wool glove. But the fox mother heard that many foxes almost killed human beings. They were quite embarrassed, so she didn’t dare to go out.
In the end, she decided to use a small magic to turn one hand of the little fox into a “cute human hand” and gave him two white copper plates. In the gap of the door, I said, “Please sell me a pair of hands wearing a suitable glove.”
Fox mother told the little fox. Select from the love tree children’s book “Little Fox Buy Gloves”, illustrate Black Well Jian.
“Can you understand, don’t reach out the other hand … People, if you know you are a fox, you won’t sell gloves to you. You will even catch you. People are terrible. ! “”
The little fox followed the light of the star, and went to the hat shop. It was good at night, the door opened a small seam, and the little fox was nervous and stretched out the paw of his fox. The owner also stunned, thinking, this is a fox to buy gloves, shouldn’t you buy leaves? So “Please pay first.” The little fox obediently handed the white copper plate. The owner gave it to the wool gloves worn by the little fox.
After buying the gloves, the little fox stood in front of a house, listening to the cradle of her mother singing to the baby. Select from the love tree children’s book “Little Fox Buy Gloves”, illustrate Black Well Jian.
The little fox hugged the snow with his gloves, flew back to the forest, and waited for his mother to be anxious, saying that “people are not terrible at all.” The fox mother said to himself: “Ah, is it really kind? Is it really kind?”
The naive little fox is just like a child who has not yet formed a cognitive child. As a children’s literary writer, the responsibility of shoulder is “what kind of world to show the child”, a world he will face independently after him, there is originally the writer’s own life concept, just like the thought of the fox mother’s thoughts “Is people really kind?”
New Mei Nanji has been writing more than 1,500 works such as fairy tales, nursery rhymes, novels, short songs. Most of them are surrounding the lives of children or animals in the countryside, town, forests, or animals, as if small things in daily life have also soaked emotions and sorrows. In his eyes, sadness and love were accompanied.
In the final analysis, there must be no sorrow in such things. Sadness will turn into love. I will write the story of sadness, that is, love. (New Mei Nanji Diary. 1929.4.6)
In “Last Tree”, the birds looked for the tree that met each other last winter. In order to fulfill the agreement “Continue to sing for you”, he learned that his old friend had been cut and made a match. The match was transported to the village, and the lit kerosene lamp was lit in front of a little girl’s table. The bird sang last year’s song in the kerosene lamp.
“The flame shakes lightly with the singing voice, as if he is saying that you are very happy.”
Really appreciate the child’s mood:
Fairy Tale Writer in “Red Bird”
At the beginning of 1943, Nanki died of tuberculosis due to tuberculosis, and was only 30 years old when he died.
In 1913, Shinmei Nanyi was born in a family of Tatami and Mujun business in Bantian City, Aichi Prefecture, Southern Island, Japan. At the age of 4, his mother died of illness. At the age of 6, his father married again, and his stepmother gave birth to his brother. At the age of 8, his father and stepmother divorced. In July of the same year, his father succeeded him to his grandmother (the stepmother of his biological mother) and changed his grandmother’s surname.
The grandmother’s home is the northernmost tip of the village. It is quite remote. It is surrounded by deep bamboo forests and rice fields. There are no friends who can play together. He couldn’t feel a little warmth, only felt dull, weird and lonely, and could not get along with his grandmother without blood. In December, he was sent back to his father’s house, but he still retained the identity of the adopted son and the surname of his grandmother. After that, his father remarried with his stepmother again. Xinmei Nanji lives with his father, stepmother, and brother. Since then, his understanding of motherly love has two types: “mother who always miss but cannot reach” and “mother in real life”.
Perhaps such childhood experiences have developed the sensitive and sensitive character of Xinmei Nanji, which deepen his pain and loneliness.
He has been weak since he was a child and has a quiet temperament. In addition to physical education in elementary school, his grades have always been good, and he has played literary talents early. At the age of 14, he began to create nursery rhymes and fairy tales, and set up a literary magazine “Orion” with his fellows, and began to use the pseudonym of “New Mei Nanji”.
In 1929, Xinmei Nanji was 16 years old. This year, Japan’s most important children’s literature magazine “Red Bird” announced its suspension.
At that time, “Red Birds” had been held for ten years. It was the position of Japanese childlism art movement and the center of the children’s literature. The influential writers in the literary world, Quan Jinghua, Tokuda Qiu Sheng, Shimazaki Fujimura, Kitahara Baiqiu, Ogawa Weiming, Akugawa Ryosuke … all wrote for children in “Red Bird”. However, under the social environment of economic downturn and tightening of ideas, “Red Birds” gradually lost the author and readers. The editor -in -chief of Suzuki Mie Ji is unable to re -maintain, and can only announce the suspension.
A bookstore in the town in the town learned the news and felt deeply lost.
In January 1931, after Suzuki Sanji, he seemed to recognize his mission, and announced the reinstatement of “Red Bird” with the determination of “Dedication to the rest of his life to it”.
This year, Xinmei Nanji was 18 years old. In March, he graduated from high school and passed the Okazaki Normal School. After that, he stayed in his alma mater as a second -year substitute teacher. New Mei Nanji told the children in the class to tell the fairy tales and nursery rhymes he wrote, including “Little Fox Aquan”.
While teaching, Xinmei Nanji contributed to “Red Bird”, “Little Fox Aquan” and his nursery rhymes were on the re -publication “Red Bird” magazine, and won the nursery rhyme poet who was also the main creator of “Red Bird”. Beiyuan Baiqiu’s appreciation.
The January issue of “Red Bird” magazine after re -publication.
On one occasion, Xinmei Nanji told the children in the class to tell the fairy tales he wrote before, and a child crying whispered after listening. New Mei Nanji wrote about this in the diary:
At that time, I was very happy. Is the story in my mind really worthy of a child’s beautiful tears? (New Mei Nanji Diary. 1931.4)
Because of “Red Birds”, he met the nursery rhyme poet of Beiyuan Baiqiu’s disciples — then he did not know that he would become the most important literary partner and editor of his life. In August, after ending the life of the substitute teacher, New Meiji went to Tokyo and lived in the Holy Shengge’s home. In the second year, under the encouragement of Shengshengge, Xinmei Nanji admitted to the English Department of Tokyo University of Foreign Languages.
“I couldn’t believe it when I received the information, and I was about to cry.”
From 1932 to 1936, he spent a lively college time and ideal literary life in Tokyo -watching movies, listening to music, reading, chatting with friends, learning literature and foreign languages, creating nursery rhymes and fairy tales. Focusing on “Red Birds”, he and Beiyuan Baiqiu and Yusheng songs warmly exchanged and discussed, broadening and deepening their understanding of children’s literature. “Little Fox Buy Gloves”, “Wild Dogs” and other fairy tales, and “Tomorrow” and other nursery rhymes are published in “Red Bird”. New Mei Nanji has become a well -deserved representative writer of “Red Bird”.
In 1933, Beiyuan Baiqiu and Suzuki Mie Yiji broke because of the incompatibility of ideas, and Beiyuan Baiqiu left “Red Bird”. Xinmei Nanji followed him and no longer contributed to “Red Bird”. Although it was decided by the initiative, it was inevitable to lose the platform published.
On the other hand, his body was getting worse and he started coughing blood. The urban life in Tokyo also made him miss his loved ones and natural landscapes.
I won’t put on a coat
Go to the beautiful girls
Fall in love
Walk with great interest
Ginza’s bright street
I will wear it
Old 衣 coat
Go to a place where no one
Gently leaning against the trunk, like the older cow
Please, take last year’s coat
Send it to me
Add a hole and make up for it
If the buttons are dropped, you will nail
Put that coat that makes me miss
—— Last year’s coat (translated by Wu Fei)
In 1935, Xinmei Nanji and his relationship between his hometown who had been married for many years broke up. Both “Red Candle” and “Last year” are written at this time. In 1936, Suzuki Sanji died of illness, and “Red Bird” completely closed. The world has fallen into the depression and chaos of the world, and all walks of life in Japan advocate war and are full of disturbances. After graduating, Xinmei Nanji failed to become a teacher as expected. After finally finding a job that could use English in Tokyo, due to his weakness, he was completely ill in October and had to leave Tokyo and go home to recuperate.
The life of illness and loneliness:
Pursue goodness and beauty in fairy tales
During this period from returning to Tokyo, Nanyi Nanyi endured the huge changes and weakness of the body, which was troubled and lonely. He read the works of “Karamazov Brothers” and the works of Russian writers such as Chekhov and Tolstoy, and thought about “humanity and love”.
Dipping people’s hearts stripped like bamboo shoots, the innermost core is self -ism. The moment we knew this truth, we encountered a major crisis in life. In other words, when we know that “everyone is in the end”, we are pushed into a complete loneliness.
However, we cannot be discouraged here. Through here, we must strive to build love from my sacrifice and no return. The love after this trial will make our world better. (New Mei Nanji Diary. 1937.3.1)
In 1937, Xinmei Nanji, who was getting better than home, was a teacher not far from home. This is a quiet and beautiful elementary school that can see the sea. In the summer rainy season, the school was shrouded in the sound of rain and waves. He dated his colleague Yamada Meizi and realized the meaning of love again.
In the letter to Tokyo friends and supported him to encourage him to create, New Mei Nanji said:
Since April, I am in the small town of the sea and the contemporary class teacher. Take 30 minutes to the south by train from Hanada City, reach the end, you can hear the sound of waves there. This is a beautiful place for Hehe, a beautiful and peaceful place. … Here, I enjoy short happiness. I didn’t know that there would be such happiness in such a place.
It turns out that life is not nothing.
June 5, 1937
River and elementary school by the sea.
After a short summer happiness, Xinmei Nanji went to a factory to introduce animal husbandry food to overseas. Due to heavy work and physical condition, he resigned at the end of the year, and his relationship with his lover Yamada Yasaki also came to an end.
Starting in 1938, in 1943 before his death, he served as a teacher at Ancheng High School Women’s School in his hometown in the past five years. The job was originally entrusted by the teacher at middle school. The professional title of “Girls’ Teacher” seemed to make him quite difficult, but the job gave him firm support and warm comfort.
He teaches English in school and is the head teacher. Despite teaching, he still insisted on his identity first. He wrote poems and led students to write poems together. “Nothing is more happy than writing a satisfactory poem.” In 1941, he also published an article entitled “Loss of Fairy Tale Story” in Waseda University, firmly explaining his creative philosophy. The war is becoming increasingly fierce. When it is promoted “the most glorious to fight the battlefield in the battlefield” in the whole country, insisting on the fairy tales and poetry creation that follow the heart, it requires more powerful will and courage.
Send it to me
Life is settled -despite being poverty, he has the idea of marrying his lover Nakayama Qianhui at the time. It is worth mentioning that as early as his middle school founded the “Orion” literary magazine, Zhongshan Qianhui was already his reader. However, in June 1940, Zhongshan Qianhui died unexpectedly in Aomori, and there was also suicide. At that time, the relationship between Xinmei Nanji and her was not so close. Xinmei Nanji cried at her funeral.
Because I have n’t been loved, I do n’t know how to love. How can the objects that have not been heated? Similarly, orphans are unfortunate whether they were childhood or after adults. (New Mei Nanji Diary. 1941.1)
Even if he is still painful, loneliness, and death, he has never stopped his creation. The quiet and beautiful scenery in the countryside, the interaction with the simple farmers and the students brought firm support and encouragement to his creation and life. During this period, the background of his stories was mostly rural, with more realism.
In “Huamu Village and Thieves”, the thieves leader complained that the little thieves under themselves were too weak and kind, and they could not grab things to the villagers. They were determined to lead by example and go to the village to do it. At this time, a child who seemed to be playing games came over, shouted his uncle, gave him a cow to him, and asked him to help himself. Mavericks were very good and stayed beside him. ——The thieves laughed, “I can show off with my disciples, I have nothing to do, and I have stolen a cow.” Smiling and smiling, tears fell down.
He didn’t understand why he cried.
People who have been loved know what love is. The thief clearly remembered that when he was a child, he had such a pure mood, but just on the way to grow up, he slowly became dirty, “as if wearing a dirty clothes.” Now tears are because I finally realize how happy it is to be trusted.
In 1942, with the support of friends of friends, the first fairy tales of Nanyi Nanyi “Grandpa’s kerosene lights” was published by Tokyo Youguang. The story finally became a beautifully decorated book, and he shared his joy in the letter to the Holy Song.
Tokyo Youguang published “Grandpa’s Cars and Lights”, which contains his five fairy tales. “Grandpa’s Coal Lights” tells a story of a hawker who sells kerosene lamps in the village that was the first to be ordered in the candle. In the end, he could not cope with the advent of the electrical age. This fairy tale was later included in the Japanese middle school textbook.
At the beginning of 1943, Xinmei Nanji was seriously ill, bed was at home, and still wrote oil lamps at night.
In “The Sadness of Kotaro”, Kotaro caught a golden turtle and walked through the village, but could not find a partner who could accompany him to play. Anxiong’s father said to Kotaro: “Anxiong has been an adult from today, and can no longer play with children. Children should go to a child to play.”
Kotaro left slowly. A deep sorrow came in my heart.
“Once you enter the world of adults, it is impossible to return to the child’s world … There is no hope here. The sorrow of Kotaro’s heart is as broad and deep as the sky. Some sorrows can cry, and crying will disappear. But can’t cry, they can’t disappear even if they cry or do it. “
He foreseeing death, in a letter to the students, explained this desire:
Even if my body disappears, as long as a small part of you (no matter how small) you remember me and cultivate the heart of loved things for a long time, I will always live in your heart. (1943.2.9)
On March 22, Nanki died of tuberculosis due to tuberculosis. Two weeks before his death, he entrusted the unpublished work to the Shengge in Tokyo and wrote the last letter:
I really want to see the fairy tale set. Now just thinking about this. (Xinmei Nanji gave the letter to Yusheng Ge. 1943.3.8)
Children’s literature view of Nanyi Nanyi:
Adhere to “childlism” writing
The Japanese children’s literature community has the saying that “there is Miyazawa in the north and the south of the south.” Nanyi Nanyi is also known as “Japanese Andersen”. Both Anderson and Miyazawa are children’s literary writers who have brought him strength during their lifetime. To a certain extent, the three of them are very similar -the creative propositions of life, no children, close to childlike and native nature, and long -term tests, have been loved by generations of children’s readers.
In 1933, Nanyi Nanyi compared the “children” to “insects” to elaborate his “childlism” writing concept:
“We go deep into the insects and become insects. Let’s live in the life of insects. Flying in the air, crawling on the ground, and resting on the leaves. I can find that insects can be found in our hearts. Somewhere, a flickering insect like a star.
It is not pursuing the outside, but to explore the inside. Discard the objective of insects and obtain the subjective of insects. Look at the vision of insects, listen to the vision of insects, use the smell of insects to smell, and feel it with the touch of insects. Organize things obtained through these organs.
When we are transformed from the transformation of insects, when we play a role in the concept of “adult”, we are sorting out. And because the concept of adults plays a role in finishing, our work is of different significance as the child’s work. “
This is also in line with the “childlism” concept described by Beiyuan Baiqiu and others. Tongxin does not refer to the true nature of children, but the ideal state of “thinkingless” by adult writers to work hard to get close to the child’s mind in writing.
New Mei Nanji’s creation compared to the early romantic creation of “Red Birds” and the children’s literature view of Ogawa Weiming and others, another step further. He emphasizes the “story” and readability of the work. As early as Shinmei Nanji dealt with the children as a elementary school teacher, he was very concerned about the feelings of the children when they listened to the story.
“When a child listened, he didn’t think it was a story. He thought all the characters and plots were real. Their listening method was amazing, using all organs, sensory and spirit, and appreciating the story.” (New Mei Nanji Diary. 1937.1)
After the death of Xinmei Nanji, the vitality of his works became increasingly apparent. In 1970, “The Complete Works of Nanyi of the United States” was published. In the Japanese children’s literature community, there are very few authors who have been published in the whole episode. In Aichi Prefecture, which was born in Nanyi, Xinmei Nanji has established the Nanyi Memorial Museum of Xinmei. Visitors can experience the rural road where Xinmei Nanji took a walk. The scene of “Little Fox Buy Gloves” was restored in the museum. The “New Mei Nanji Fairy Award” named after his name has also become an important award in the Japanese children’s literature community.
New American Nanji Complete Works and Fairy Tale Collection.
The little fox in the Xinmei Nanji Memorial Hall buy glove scene.
At the moment when the world is trapped, uncertain and uneasy, the New American Nanji Memorial Museum has launched an activity calling everyone to recite nursery rhymes “Tomorrow”. Nursery rhymes can bring brightness and hope to everyone.
Waiting like a garden.
Waiting like festivals.
Tomorrow is waiting for everyone.
Tomorrow’s insects will become butterflies.
Tomorrow will become a flower.
Tomorrow bird eggs will become chicks.
It’s like Qingquan rushing spring water.
It’s like lighting lights.
Written article ｜ Li Yindou
Edit ｜ Shen Yan
School pair ｜ Lu Qian
Tomorrow is waiting for everyone.
Tomorrow is waiting for everyone.