——In the Chinese civilization in Sanxingdui and Sands Site
Author: Chen Hu Yukang (the editor of the Chinese Book Company, associate professor of Xinyang Teachers College)
“Silkworm clusters and fish tadpoles, how are the founding of the country.” The ancient Shu kingdom shrouded in the fog, since the Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites, which are “sleeping for three thousand years”, were left even more in 1986 and 2001, respectively. Give the world endless reverie. Those precious cultural relics with unique shapes make people even link them with aliens. Who are they, where do they come from, and where do they go? At first, the bright civilization mysteriously disappeared, and after thousands of years, the world was shocked. How much is the unsolved mystery?
The newly published book “From Sanxingdui to Sands -the Story of the World of Chinese Civilization” published by the Chinese Book Company focuses on the ancient Shu civilization, and it tells the story behind the magical and precious relics of the ancient Shu era. Today, let’s follow the “babies” unearthed to explore the truth of the history of ancient Shu.
Bronze god tree unearthed from Sanxingdui No. 2 sacrifice pit
1. “Foreign Severals” attract reveries
Thousands of precious cultural relics such as bronze wares, gold wares, jade, pottery, pottery, ivory, and shellfish unearthed are known as one of the greatest archeological discoveries of human beings in the 20th century. Among the many bronze masks unearthed in Sanxingdui, the most peculiar and most prestigious is the three bronze vertical masks unearthed on the No. 2 sacrifice pit. The super realistic shape and mysterious and quiet, majestic momentum give people strong deterrence. Is it God, or is it the Supreme of the World? One of them is 138 cm wide and 64.5 cm high. It is called “Thousand Miles Eyes” and “Shunfeng Ear” large bronze vertical mask. The convexity of up to 16 cm; a huge peach -tip -like ears with a length of 70 cm, full of flying to the two sides, stretching up and standing upwards, the auricle is decorated with hooks; the short nose bridge, the nose is beef nose -shaped, nose -shaped shape Roll upward; wide and deep mouth, deep and long mouth, like slightly exposing the tip of the tongue, making a mysterious smile; there is a hole in the middle of the forehead, which may originally cast exquisite foreheads. The entire mask is majestic and majestic. It is the earliest and largest bronze mask in the world. It is known as one of the “six major national treasures” of Sanxingdui. Two smaller bronze vertical masks with a height of 31.5 cm, 77.4 cm wide, and 82.5 cm high, and the eyes and eyes are also stretched forward for about 10 cm. Elephant nose -shaped) exquisite forehead, the shape of both ears is basically straight. The overall shape is mysterious and weird, and the style is strong and beautiful. When the mask is unearthed, the color of the eyes and eyebrows is still clearly visible.
As one of the iconic utensils unearthed from the Sanxingdui site, what does the bronze vertical mask represent? What is the meaning? Because they are hundreds of important cultural relics such as bronze portrait portraits and bronze god trees unearthed at the same time, and they are significantly different from the Copper Summer Civilization of the Central Plains Xiaesha. Too reverie. Some scholars believe that Sanxingdui and Sands are from external civilizations such as Western Asia, and even think they are masterpieces left by “aliens”. However, it is generally believed that “a large number of unearthed cultural relics with distinctive regional characteristics tell us that the legendary ancient Shu dynasty was not Ziwu, and the Chengdu Plain was even earlier during the Shang and Zhou dynasties. As one of the important birthplaces of Chinese civilization, it has the same and developed history and culture as the Central Plains and other regions. “
Bronze Dairen unearthed from Sanxingdui No. 2 sacrifice pit is selected from “From Sanxingdui to Sands”
2. The ancient Shu kingdom is mysterious
Ancient books such as “The King of Shu” and “Huayang National Chronicle” recorded that there were silkworms, cypress irrigation, and fish. Are they legendary characters or indeed? Is the name of the human name or the name of the clan or the tribe? How long did they last for each dynasty? What about the rise and fall of each other? Where do they come from and where do they go? These questions have a strong mysterious color for the historical and culture of ancient Shu.
The bronze statue group with exquisitely cast and different shapes unearthed from Sanxingdui and Sands forms a variety of and lifelike mysterious groups. The statues, as well as a large number of exquisite cultural relics such as gold rods, golden masks, jade, copper, copper, and copper pupa, which confirms the ancient Shu kingdom recorded in the literature. key.
Bronze god trees, vertical bronze masks, bronze standing portraits, and many bronze avatar, bronze villain, and human face bird statue, which are both characteristic and exaggerated by God and ghosts, showing a strong totem meaning meaning It focuses on the concept of worship and beliefs of the ancient Shu people, which may symbolize the worship idol of ancient Shu people.
It is generally believed that the image of the bronze vertical mask is in line with the record of the “vertical eyes” of the ancestors of the Shu people in ancient literature. It may be the symbol of the ancestral silkworm cluster that the ancient Shu ancestors worshiped and worshiped in the temple. Therefore, some scholars believe that the bronze vertical mask is the same as other bronze avatars, which is the image of the ancient Shu people. According to the literature, some scholars recorded that the King of Shu, such as cypress, fish, and Du Yu, named the name of the birds, and speculated that the silkworm cluster may also be birds. Therefore, the ancient Shu kingdom of Du Yu used birds as a totem. Some scholars believe that these bronze masks and portraits belong to the kingdom heavy weapon at the time. They should be a series of gods. The exaggerated shapes indicate that they have superhuman magical powers and are likely to be placed in the central position in sacrifice or belief activities. The first layer of its representative is the incarnation of the Wuxi of the ancient Shu Kingdom, symbolizing the group witch group of the ancient Shu Kingdom, and the symbol of the divine rights. The second meaning is the symbol of the rule of the ancient Shu Kingdom, which represents both the god rights and the incarnation of the royal power.
3. “Taotai Bird Road” multi -business brigade
In the archeological excavations of Sanxingdui and Sands sites, a large number of ivory and sea shells were unearthed. This has never been in the history of China and the world. Why do the ancient Shu people have so many ivory? Where do they come from? What is the use? These ivory are placed together regularly and parallel to the ground. The most accumulated layers can reach 8 layers, and there are a large number of jade and bronze buried in the same pit. Scholars have speculated that ivory response is the sacrifice supplies of the ancient Shu Kingdom. The identification of the ivory unearthed from Sanxingdui and Sands is Asian phenomena. At the same time, the sea sheet unearthed may come from the warm waters of the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Some scholars believe that these sea shells and ivory are likely to come from exotic long -range trade. The Asian elephant has only a male elephant with the tooth. Each male elephant with two holes and the ivory weighs a number of tons means an amazing number of large elephant groups. So, did the Sichuan basin have habitat activities in the Sichuan Basin during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties? Are these amazing ivory be obtained in the local elephant group? Some scholars believe that the information disclosed by ancient literature and the revelation provided by archeological discovery can be seen that the Yangtze River Basin and Sichuan during the Shang and Zhou Dynasties are likely to have large -scale elephant activities and habitats. Land produced. Other scholars must leave a large number of remains after the hunting elephant has not been found to speculate that the ivory unearthed from Sanxingdui and Sands ruins must not be native to the local area of Shu. A large number of cargo shellfish, tabby scallops, and cyclical shells unearthed from Sanxingdui are also unearthed in the tomb of Yinxu Women in Yinxu, Anyang, Henan Province, and the late tombs of Subu Tun in Qingzhou, Shandong. Studies have shown that the Haibei of Yinxu comes from the East China and the South my country Sea. Then, whether it is from Yin Ruins or from the Indian Ocean, the Sanxingdui Haibei shows the situation of the ancient Shu people and the outside world. Studies have also shown that these Haibei had the functions of primitive currency at the time, and it should be a great wealth from the number of quantities. Therefore, some scholars believe that neither the Central Plains and the ancient Shu do not produce Haibei. These sea shells are obviously imported from the Pacific and the coast of the Indian Ocean. The activity area is quite broad.
The ancient Shu area is one of the main origin of my country’s silk. Since ancient times, the legend of the descendants of the ancestors and the ancient Shu kings of the ancient Shu king has “taught the people to raise silkworms”. During the Sanxingdui culture period, Gu Shu’s silk weaving technology was quite mature. The crown worn by the bronze standing portrait of Sanxingdui, and the long -sliced patterns on the long plackets, which are shown in Shujin and Shu embroidery. Many of the utensils unearthed from Samsung Dou, many residues attached to the fabrics on it, indicating that the silk weaving process and silk were used quite well at that time. The records of “Historical Records of Da Wan” confirmed that before Emperor Hanwu, the silk trade between ancient Shu and ancient India already existed. From the Chengdu Plain to Myanmar, India through Yunnan, the rest of Pakistan, Afghanistan to West Asia (Iran), and then to the Mediterranean and Roman Empires, it is the western line of the ancient Silk Road in the Southern Southern. The sea shells unearthed from Sanxingdui are most likely to sell ancient India and other places from South Asia, because the teeth are produced in the sea of warmth in India and Myanmar. The ancient Shu people moved towards the vast world through this ancient business. It not only brought a large number of sea shells and ivory to the ancient Shu Kingdom, but also brought many exotic factors, which promoted the prosperity of ancient Shu business, Sanxingdui, Sanxing Dou, Sands Sands, and Sandsha. Bronze culture is colorful.
4. “Hengju Emei” War Muye
“Erlai is 48 thousand years old, not with Qin Setong people.” The literature records and archeological achievements tell us that although the ancient Shu Kingdom is a prosperous kingdom of independent development, it is not closed. It and the Yellow River. The Xia, Yin Dynasty and other areas of the basin have long economic and cultural exchanges. Archeology has confirmed that the site of the ancient city of Sanxingdui is the capital of the ancient Shu Kingdom at the end of the Xia and Shang Dynasty. User appliances, as well as jade wares for sacrifices such as jade and jade, are obviously influenced by Erlitou culture. By the late Culture of Sanxingdui, the bronze casting technology in the period of Sands and the Twelve Bridge culture is more influenced by the culture of the Shang Dynasty.
During the Yin and Shang dynasties, the relationship between the ancient Shu and the Central Plains and the Central Plains was more common in the Oracle of Yinxu. The archeological achievements prove that the civilization of Sanxingdui in the middle of the Shang Dynasty is extremely prosperous. The ancient Shu Kingdom has formed a strong country. The Shang Shu relationship in Yinxu’s resignation is actually a series of and war incidents that occurred on the border borders of the two sides on the border border. The Shu and the Shang Dynasty are international relations, not the relationship between the Fang State and the Communist Party. As far as bronze is concerned, although the ancient Shu bronze culture has its own department, it has distinctive personality characteristics, but not only can it see the obvious impact of the Central Plains culture, but many utensils are directly imitated in the Central Plains. At that time, the relationship between Gu Shu and Yin Shang may have water and land. The waterway is the upper and lower of the Yangtze River, and the land road is the channel between the middle of the Han Dynasty or between the Longshu, that is, the “Cavalite Stone Hook Hook” channel. However, the cultural exchanges between Gu Shu and the Central Plains do not lose the communication of the subject. For example, the bronze wares of Sanxingdui absorb some factors of the bronze in the middle of the Yangtze River, especially the bronze container such as respect and 罍, which is similar to similar utensils in the middle of the Yangtze River. However, Sanxingdui culture does not use respect and 罍 as a ritual, but is used to place items, especially valuables such as sea shells. This shows that it only borrows the shape of the utensils and does not accept the concept of etiquette from business culture.
Sanxingdui unveiled the mysterious veil of the history of ancient Shu. It was discovered with archeological discoveries such as Baodun Culture, Chengdu Commercial Street Boat Coffee, Yangzi Shantai Building, Twelve Bridge, Pengzhou Zhuwa Street Commercial Zhou Bronze Cellar, etc. The context of the development of Shu history and culture has a clearer understanding.
5. The unsolved mystery swings in front of the eyes
At the end of the 12th century BC, Sanxingdui suddenly annihilated, and disappeared without a trace for more than 3,000 years. In the first year of the 21st century, a surprising new archeological discovery came from Jinsha in Chengdu! Archaeologists discovered large -scale building base sites, sacrifice areas, large cemetery and other sites. There are more than 6,000 precious cultural relics such as lacquer wares, and tens of thousands of pottery slices and tons of ivory, which gives us more understanding of the ancient Shu civilization. At the same time Essence
What is the relationship between the Jinsha site and the Sanxingdui site? Does Sands appear at the same time as Sanxingdui, or are another emerging ancient Shu Kingdom Capital that appeared after its annihilation? Which ancient Shu dynasty was the relic of the Jinsha site? In this regard, scholars generally believe that the Sands site is the capital of the ancient Shu Kingdom in the late Shang Dynasty to the ancient Shu Kingdom. From time to time, Jinsha’s era is connected with Sanxingdui. The unearthed cultural relics such as gold masks, bronze standing portraits, bronze birds, jade, jade, and god -noodles, and the patterns on the golden jade, and the golden crown belt, and the unearthed utensils of Samsung Dou in the aspects of cultural connotation, modeling art, production skills, are both There are many significant similarities and their own distinctive features. Some utensils such as the sun god bird gold foil, frog -shaped gold foil, speaker -shaped gold ware, jade board -shaped grooves (jade scabbard) and jade brand, etc., have never been discovered before. This is very important to understand the relationship between the two. Some scholars believe that if the Sanxingdui site is the capital of the ancient Shu Kingdom in the ancient Shu Kingdom of the Sanxingdui and the Duyu era, will the Sands site be the capital of the ancient Shu kingdom in the enlightened era? In other words, when Samsung Dou was gradually abandoned by floods or other natural disasters and human disasters, and changing dynasties, Jinsha followed and became more prosperous, which played a role in the development of ancient Shu culture. Other scholars believe that the two sites are connected in the past and back, and the Sands site is formed by absorbing other cultures on the basis of inheriting the Sanxingdui culture, but it is different in terms of faith. It does not rule out that the rights of different forces groups. Some scholars believe that the ancestors who inhabited the Sands site were not moved from Sanxingdui. It may be another tribe of the ancient Shu people. The alliances of these tribes jointly formed the ancient Shu Kingdom.
About the 7th century BC, the prosperous Jinsha City suddenly declined. Where did the ancient Shu Kingdom soul since then? According to a group of bronze, pottery, stone and other utensils unearthed from the Twelve Bridge ruins of the Chengdu in the 1980s, some scholars believed that the enlightened dynasty did not fall behind in Jinsha. core area. Some scholars believe that after the demise of the enlightened dynasty, the descendants of the King of Shu gradually moved south, and eventually established the Anyang Kingdom in the northern part of Vietnam. The historical books of the “Jiaozhou Waido” and “The Biography of the Nans”, after the demise of the enlightened dynasty, the prince of Shu Anyang moved to the south and entered the Jiaoji (now northern Vietnam) through the Red River. The general, the “Shu Dynasty”, the Kingdom of Anyang. Anyang Wangcheng, Vietnam historical history believes that it is the ancient Luo City of Gu Luo Village, Dongying County, Hanoi, Vietnam. The “heavy city” system built by the Wangcheng of Anyang, and the legend that was built due to the help of golden turtles during the construction of Wangcheng, Anyang. “The legend is exactly the same. In addition, in terms of archeology, there are many differences in the red river basin in northern Vietnam, which are similar to Sanxingdui culture. A large number of Shu -style utensils were found in other places. All of the above should have a close relationship with the Graduate of the Prince of Shu Anyang from Shu Di.
Sleeping for three thousand years and awakening the world
In the history of China and the world’s archeology, Sanxingdui and Jinsha sites can be regarded as unprecedented and refreshing archeological discoveries.”From Sanxingdui to Sands -the Stunning of Chinese Civilization” revealed to us the gorgeous social life scenes of the ancient Shu Kingdom more than 3,000 years ago, and vividly show an obliterated inland inland with the cultural connotation of the encyclopedia full book.The glory of agricultural civilization.
“Guangming Daily” (12th edition on September 25, 2021)
Source: Guangming.com- “Guangming Daily”