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Plug back to 1932.
Faced with China, which is internal and foreign, and poor, the “Oriental Magazine” has planned a “New Year’s Dream” activity and issued a letter of documentation to people from all walks of life. dream”.
Among them, Zhou Gucheng, a professor of Jinan University, is the most short and powerful: “The first condition in China in my dream is: everyone has the opportunity to sit on the stool on the toilet.”
Crossing the history of more than 80 years, through this slightly indecent words, we can still clearly feel a hot emotion and urgent vision. The toilet is also condensed into a distinctive symbol of measurement civilization.
In today’s China, the toilet toilet has become the “standard” of most families. The level of urban public toilet construction is constantly upgrading, and China is concentrating on the “hard bone” of “rural toilet reform”.
The “Three -Year Action Plan for Rural Human Resources Environment” was adopted at the first meeting of the 19th Central Leading Group for Comprehensive Deepening Reform. At this meeting hosted by General Secretary Xi Jinping, the “toilet revolution” rose to the national level.
The toilet is the scale of civilization and a footnote for national development. Looking back at the 70 -year journey of New China, the toilet reflected the changes in the health habits of the Chinese people, affecting the travel of hundreds of millions of people, and the overall situation of beautiful rural construction. The meaning of the “toilet revolution” is wider than people think.
Farmers in Jiibi Town, Pengzhou City, Sichuan Province were transformed into water flush. Photo by the reporter of the People’s Daily Online
The Great Revolution in the small corner
—— From patriotic hygiene sports to healthy China
There are about 1 million to 400 million bacteria for one gram of feces.
“Men are not long, women are not born, bones are like firewood, people are deformed, weak, and weak, ascites.” This is a terrible symptom of blood suction insect disease. Hematophyte disease is commonly known as “big belly disease”. After the illness, people who are sick are extremely thin, and symptoms such as ascites and giant spleen occur. Hematophyte disease not only makes people lose labor, and even severe life.
The people in Pig County, in the depths of the mountains in Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Sichuan, were tortured by such pain.
Potal sunlight, abundant rainfall, no cold in winter, no heat in the summer, and the humid surfaces have a large amount of blood -absorbent ovation -ecstasy -nail snails. The nail snail is the middle host of the spread of blood suction disease.
“It turns out that many people in the village have lost their lives because of this illness.” The old man in the Township Township recalled the scene many years ago and was still very scared. In the past, Sichuan has a record of ten rooms and nine empty rooms and people who have been destroyed due to blood suction disease.
“The first step in prevention and control is to mobilize the local people to go to the toilet.” The staff of the Parasitic Institute of Parasitic Diseases at the Sichuan Provincial Centers for Disease Control and Prevention told reporters that the feces of human and animal feces are one of the main sources of blood absorption diseases. Essence
Blood -absorbing disease, this appalling disease, did not reach the blocking standards in Pigxian County, Liangshan Prefecture in Pogis County, Liangshan Prefecture.
The Township Fanglin of Izz Township told reporters: “The construction of the sanitary toilet and biogas pool has basically reached 90%in the village, and the usage rate reaches 95%, which effectively controls the source of infection.”
According to Zhou Yibiao, a professor at the School of Public Health of Fudan University, the “toilet revolution” not only promoted the improvement of infrastructure and environmental sanitation, but also changed the old concepts of most villagers. “The construction of the toilet is conducive to controlling the infection of blood suction insect disease and intestinal diseases, and has a profound impact.”
The toilet reform in Liangshan area in Sichuan is a microcosm of China’s “toilet revolution”.
In the early days of the founding of New China, the rural environment was generally unpredictable. Many rural people and livestock lived together. There was no toilet, no toilet, and animals. This makes it difficult to control the disease prevention of the disease. Some of the intestinal infectious diseases that seriously affect people such as dysentery and typhoid fever. Among the children’s groups, the prevalence of tapeworm disease is as high as 70%.
The problem of rural toilet dirt has existed widely in China. The toilet culture in the period of farming civilization allows people to compost compost and collective dung urine.
In the “Rural Life in South China -Family Sociology of Familyism in Phoenix Village, Guangdong” published in 1925, American sociologist Ge Xuezheng wrote that farmers scooped liquid feces from the pool every day, passing through the village to pick them into the fields , Fertilize crops; and people hit water and toilet in the same Phoenix Creek.
How to collect and dispose of feces reasonably so that it can be used by agriculture and does not pollute the environment. It was a problem facing people at that time.
In 1952, Comrade Mao Zedong pointed out, “mobilize, pay attention to hygiene, reduce diseases, improve the level of health, and shatter the enemy’s bacterial war.” The country has set off a vigorous patriotic sanitation movement. Comrade Zhou Enlai and Xi Zhongxun personally served as the director of the former Patriotic Health Sports Committee of the Central Committee. The masses are widely mobilized in all regions and departments to carry out mass hygiene activities in addition to “four harms”, hygiene, and rectifying the environment.
The “two tubes and five reforms” became the core vocabulary of rural environmental sanitation from the 1950s to the mid -1960s. Among them, “one tube” was tube manure and “changed” to the toilet.
“The patriotic sanitation campaign has seized the two main links: water and tube manure in rural health work. Through tube and tube manure, improved water sources and improved toilets can effectively control the pathogenic microorganisms in the feces The pollution, reducing the occurrence of intestinal infectious diseases. At the same time, it can also meet the needs of agricultural production, generate harmless organic fertilizer, and increase income. “Said Fu Yanfen, a researcher at the Rural Reform Steering Center of the China Disease Control and Control Center.
In April 2019, the 31st “Patriotic Sanitation Month” clearly proposed the theme of “toilet revolution”.
Different from many years ago, “manure and toilet”, the new round of “toilet revolution” after the 18th National Congress of the Communist Party of China has more depth of a healthy China. The first ring of “toilet revolution” is closely linked to the process of healthy China.
Toilet cleaners in Chang’an District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province told reporters about the change of public toilets. Song Zijie Photo
The big people’s livelihood in the small toilet
—— “Tips for Heaven” was once a shortcoming of urban people’s livelihood
For about 3 years in a person’s life, it is spent in the toilet.
The daily behavior of this people’s life is called “small things in the sky”.
The “toilet revolution” has different era significance in different historical periods. Experts and scholars define the “toilet revolution” as a gradual process to improve public health and environmental quality.
Fu Yanfen pointed out that the “Toilet Revolution” from the early days of the establishment of the New China, to the primary health care in the 1980s, the establishment of a health city in the 1990s, and the remediation of the rural human settlement environment today. The overall development is closely related.
The reporter noticed that after the sanitation situation was basically improved, and in the era of reform and opening up in 1978, the “toilet revolution” had a new urgentity-
The rapid economic development, accompanied by the high gathering of population brought about by urbanization and the increasing population of the flow. In 1980, the urban population had reached 190 million, and limited public toilets could not meet the basic needs.
The rapid development of the Chinese fertilizer industry has continuously weakened the dependence of rural organic fertilizer such as human feces and urine. From the 1970s to the mid -1980s, these “unable to return” cities need to be treated through the urban water pipeline system.
Reform and opening up attracts overseas tourists. When people in developed countries watch the toilets in a developing country, it is not strange to feel serious discomfort in Chinese toilets. Some foreign tourists wrote to the embassy that Chinese landscapes were beautiful and attracted the majority of tourists, but people underestimated the influence of the clean and hygiene of public toilets.
The sudden increase in the urban mobility population, organic fertilizer nowhere to go, criticism of foreign tourists … Driven the dual promotion of urbanization and opening to the outside world, improving the urban public toilet has become an urgent problem for the government to solve.
The rectification of this toilet hygiene explores in the top -down government behavior and insightful people.
In 1990, with the opportunity to host the 11th Asian Games, the Beijing Municipal Government organized a large -scale city -Rong neat operation, including hygienic rectification of public toilets. According to the “30 Years of the” China Revolution “, from 1984 to 1989, more than 1,300 newly built and rebuilt public toilets in Beijing, so that more than 6,000 public toilets basically met the cleanliness of the cleaning of water into the toilet.
At the same time, in the late 1980s, some people of insight realized the significance of promoting a “toilet revolution” in China.
Economist Zhu Jiaming published “China: Toilet Revolution” in 1988 after returning from foreign inspection. The prelude to the book says: “Modernization is a lot of historical process. But for everyone, there is a spirit of” focusing on the big place, small position “. It reflects the cultural characteristics and level of a country. “
The “toilet revolution” runs through the development of China’s cities and beating with the pulse of urban construction.
“New Town New District does not owe accounts, and the old city and old district will make up as soon as possible.” After nearly 30 years of continuous advancement, as of the end of 2018, the number of public toilets managed by the national and county sanitation departments of the country reached 182,000.
In Beijing in 1949, there were only more than 500 public toilets in the city.
In 2018, the number of public toilets in Beijing reached 1,9008, and the world’s number one in the major cities. According to the setting target, within the fourth ring road, 20 public toilets per square kilometer, and people can find the toilet within 5 minutes walk.
Today, the “fifth space” public toilet implemented by Beijing has changed the previous image and the single function that can only “solve the internal emergency”, which has become another space outside the family space, work space, leisure space, and network space.
The toilet, this “small thing of the sky”, has jumped from a short board of people’s livelihood to a help springboard to enhance the happiness of the masses.
Xiangyang Village villagers under the foot of Qinling Mountain are building a tri -style septic tank. Photo by the reporter of the People’s Daily Online
Large engineering in the small village
—— “Lizi Engineering” leveraged beautiful countryside construction
The rebuilding of the toilet is called the “Lidi Project of the Great Power”.
“To carry forward the spirit of nails, take targeted measures, one after another, grab one, and win a big victory.”
In April 2015, Xi Jinping specifically made instructions on the “toilet revolution” and demanded that he was at a young age and started from being practiced. The toilet began to be reconstructed from the tourism system. Soon after, advance to the rural field.
“For a long time, the difficulty of changing the toilet has exceeded people’s expectations. The new central leadership of the Central Committee dares to act hard, solve the most concerned problems in people’s lives, and enhance the happiness of the masses.” Professor Xu Yaotong said in an interview with the People’s Daily Online.
More than 40 years ago, Zhaojiahe Village, Fengjiaping Township, Yanchuan County, Shaanxi Province established the first toilet separated by the first male and female. The person who renovated it was Xi Jinping, a educated youth at the Zhaojiahe Village at the time.
More than 40 years later, the reporter came to Dongsheng Village, Chang’an District, Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province to visit the toilet changes at the foot of Qinling.
In the summer afternoon, on the main road of Dongsheng Village, the warm sun shines on the small vegetable gardens in front of various households. The huge and full tomatoes and green cucumbers are hung on the shelf, and there is a faint aroma in the air.
It is hard to imagine that this street was adjacent to this street, the smell, and the garbage was full of garbage.
“Before changing the toilet, each of each house was covered in the streets. The villagers felt that it was covered in the public area, and the dirty and messy had nothing to do with themselves.”
Until May 2018, a letter of “To the Farmers’ Friends” that advocated the reform of the toilet was attached to the publicity bar of the village entrance. Caiyuan, Dongsheng Village’s village looks refreshing.
The toilet problem was a common problem facing the city, and it was a “boss” problem in the countryside.
As early as 30 years ago, the local area had started to transform the rural toilets, but it had little effect. Investigations of relevant departments found that farmers were unwilling to spend money on the construction of “unable to see direct income” and believe that it was a waste of money.
Wallets are not drums, new ideas are new, and the construction of economic conditions, living habits and infrastructure often affects the progress of rural toilet transformation. Here, the “toilet revolution” is not only the infrastructure, but also the inherent concept of a huge group.
In 1981, the rustic and ancient mountain village in the film “Forgotten by Love” was a happy village in Danling County, Meishan City, Meishan City, Sichuan Province. Here is a large area of ancient Muishan forests, the houses are scattered, and the smoke is cooked.
Before the toilet was changed, the open -air dung pits circulated by the ancestors after the village house were exposed, flying, and smelly. Unexposed feces are directly poured into the field for organic fertilizer. Although the villagers are not satisfied with this situation, they have long been accustomed to it and believe that “there is no feces odor, there is a grain incense.”
In recent years, with the “toilet revolution” in the country, Danling County has also started to promote rural toilet reform. According to the official data, there are 470 households in Xingfu Village, 429 sanitary toilets, and the penetration rate of sanitary toilets is 91.28%.
Comparison before and after the renovation of households in Danling County, Meishan City, Sichuan Province. Interviewee confidence
Washing ponds, mirrors, walls with tiles … Entering the home of the villagers of Xingfu Village, the toilet appearance is not the same as the urban apartment.
“The overall hygiene of the village has improved,” the villagers said with emotion.
Fu Yanfen pointed out that promoting toilet reform in rural areas often achieved “packaging” such as rural domestic garbage governance, rural sewage management, and improvement of rural civilization, and jointly became an important part of improving the rural living environment. This change is related to the construction of new socialist rural civilization.
From the idea of landing, compared to cities, rural modern toilets want to promote large -scale promotion, and more “warm -up exercises” –
Connect the electricity, use water, and repair the road. With the lighting facilities, it can be covered with the roof without open -air lighting; the water can be popularized by the water; the road can be popularized, and the road can be connected to the village faster.
“The change of habit is a process. The settlement, bulk, and small -scale units also have different toilet modification models.” Wei Junli from Aiwei Office in Chang’an District said, “Households, villages, villages, and gradually take parts with point, gradually gradually take advantage of the village. Rush. “Grass -roots cadres have been explored, piloted, re -explored, re -piloted, and promoted, and they adapt to local conditions. One village and one strategy to replace the noodles.
“The motivation of the” toilet revolution “in the countryside has changed from ‘for sanitation’ to ‘for comfort.” Fu Yanfen introduced.
Li Weiguo, the director of the Rural Social Division of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, revealed at a press conference in July this year that in 2018, more than 10 million households were renamed in rural areas in 2018, and the rural toilet reform rate was more than half, of which more than 60 % were changed to harmlessly harmless Hua sanitary toilet has been welcomed by farmers.
The success of the “toilet revolution” also depends on the innovation and upgrading of technology, the socialization and standardization of management, and the government’s continuous attention and guidance. After initially realizing the harmlessness of the toilet, the resource, humanization, and conservation of the toilet also have a long way to go.
Behind the “point” of the toilet with the “face” of rural rejuvenation is behind the overall forward of the vast rural civilization process.
The public toilet director of the Yanta District of Xi’an City, Shaanxi Province. Photo by the reporter of the People’s Daily Online
“Large civilization in small changes”
——In a new China through the “Toilet Revolution”
“Toilet Revolution” is a common problem facing developing countries.
Data in 2017 showed that there were as many as $ 260 billion in economic losses in the world due to toilet problems, and as many as 560,000 children died of diseases such as diarrhea caused by environmental hygiene.
“I can’t understand that we can send the Rockets to Mars and the moon, but they can’t repair a toilet and stop the urination in this country.” Indian actor Kumar’s words in an interview with the media caused it in India and internationally. Hot discussion.
How can China’s “toilet revolution” advance quickly? This has also attracted widespread attention from experts and scholars of international community.
“Such a big country, so many people, such a complicated national conditions, leaders must understand the national conditions and the thoughts of the people’s thoughts, and have the consciousness of” such as “thin ice, such as the abyss”, and the “governing the big country to cook Xiaoxian like Xiaoxian”. ‘The attitude, I dare not slack at all, I dare not be sloppy, I must work in the public and diligent in the public. “
The words of Xi Jinping, the top leader of China, told the mystery behind.
The toilets that are related to the vital interests of the masses are deployed from the central government to local leaders at all levels to implement this “trivial matter” and strive to ensure the system.
Fund subsidy encourages support -the relevant person in charge of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs introduced that since 2019, the central government has supported the local rural “toilet revolution” in 5 years. This year, 7 billion yuan of funds will be arranged, and it will benefit more than 10 million farmers.
Multiple departments jointly collaborated -in Jiangxi, the Standing Committee of the Provincial Party Committee and Deputy Governor of the Provincial Party Committee and Deputy Governor established the “Toilet Revolution” leadership group. More than 10 leaders of the provincial and urban and rural construction departments, full -time deputy director of the Provincial Civilization Office, and Deputy Director of the Provincial Tourism Development Commission, etc., became members of the group.
The implementation of the grass -roots system is implemented -Xi’an implements the “director system” of the fourth -level toilet, and more than 3,000 directors are listed on the job. The reporter saw on the public toilet of the Dong Road, Chang’an Street, and the name of Wang Qingfeng, the secretary of the Chang’an District Party Committee, was written in the first column. “Secretary Wang came to walk around almost every day and checked it.” The toilet cleaner said.
“Stubborn diseases are fierce.” In the face of the traditional toilet environment and concepts of thousands of years, nearly 1.4 billion people are not easy to solve the problem of toilet problems, and it takes a long time to work. From the leadership of the central government to the director of the grassroots, this horizontal system has established a path map for the “toilet revolution”.
A strong national system guarantees the smooth progress of this people’s livelihood project.
In Fujian, in the small toilets in Fujian, in the small toilet, the city inspected a week, reported on Monday, and interviewed on Monday. “You Fengyun, director of the Organization Department of Fu’an City, joked.
In Qinghai, the reconstruction of the toilet is called the “No. 1 Project”. In the Scenic Area A -level assessment and review, whether the toilet meets the standard as a hard indicator, and implement “one -vote veto” to force the city and scenic spots to increase the number of toilets and management levels.
“The will and determination to show in the” Toilet Revolution “is worthy of admiration. After the release of the toilet revolution ‘initiative, we have seen that the Chinese government, enterprises, and society have carried out comprehensive mobilization. Improvement. “Blain Abergaster, director of Wild and Melinda Gates Foundation, said.
Students from 11 African countries including Malawi, Kenya, and Ghana visited the biogas toilet in rural China with the training courses of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Ministry. Malawi’s Benjamin Moore expressed great admiration for the development and utilization of Chinese rural households in biogas. He believes that these development models can be copied to African countries.
The successful experience and technological exploration of China’s “toilet revolution” has become an important model for developing countries.
Light -gray marble ground, white -bodied pond wash, inductive flushing toilet … In many public places in China, clean and sanitary toilets improve people’s travel experience.
Some scholars pointed out, “Looking at the degree of civilization of a city, it is best to see its public toilets. What about public toilets and urban civilization.”
A grass -roots cadre who has long managed the urban public toilet told reporters: “I believe that the environment can educate people.” A good toilet environment also cultivates a good toilet civilization.
The “toilet revolution” not only brings changes in civilized habits, but also brings health, social benefits, and ecological benefits, and then transformed into economic benefits, and it has developed a vibrant vitality to promote the integration of urban and rural areas.
China changes the toilet, and the “toilet revolution” has also changed China.
(Wu Chao, Feng Li, and Zhang Guizhou also contributed to this article)
(Source: People’s Daily Online)