“The biggest challenge should be like the Late brothers flying into the sky for the first time.
Almost every time the Nobel Prize#scientific award is issued, some people always ask “What is the use?”
When the Nobel Organ Commission interviewed the new science winner Bernard L. Felin, he asked what the biggest challenge he currently encountered is? He talked about the question of “what use”.
——We today, let’s take a look at the Nobel Prize winner of such a golden sentence, and his research —
The 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry was awarded to-Pierre Sovich, Sir J. Fraiz Stardatt, and Bernard L. Ferrich to recognize them to make only hair only hair. One -thousandth of a thick and thin molecular machine. They successfully connected the molecules together, and jointly designed all molecular machines including miniature elevators, miniature motors, and micro -skin structure.
How small can you make the machine? The particularly troubled Mr. Ferman predicted the development of nanotechnology in the 1950s. In a visible speech in 1984, he raised the question. At that time, Fisan, who was barefoot and wearing a pink POLO shirt and beige shorts, turned to the audience and said, “Now let’s talk about the possibility of creating extremely small machines with mobile components.”
Ferman believes that it is possible to build a machine under nano -scale. This exists in nature. He raised bacterial whipped as an example. The shape of the bottle -opening of the wine continued to rotate, pushing the bacteria forward. but
Can humans use their huge hands to create such a small machine that requires electron microscope to watch?
[Future Vision -Molecular machines will appear within 25-30 years]
One possible method is to make a smaller machine than human hand, and then use this new “hand” to make smaller hands, and then make smaller hands, so until you can Use micro -handle to make the same micro -machine. Ferman said,
Someone has tried it, but it is not used well
Another strategy that Richard Ferman feels more reliable is
Construction machinery from bottom to the ground
Essence In his theoretical concept, different substances, such as silicon, can be sprayed on the same surface, and a layer of atoms are stacked with a layer of atoms. After that, some layers are partially dissolved and removed to form mobile components that can be controlled by current. In Ferman’s outlook for the future, such a structure can be used to make a shutter of a miniature camera.
The purpose of the lecture was to inspire researchers in the audience at the time and let them test the limits of what they believed. In the end, Ferman combined with his notebook, looked at the audience, and said playfully: “… You can try whether you can redesign all kinds of machines you are familiar with. This process must be very happy. There will be some practical applications in this area.
But what is it, I don’t know
Both Ferman and the audience at that time did not know that the research of molecular machinery at that time had taken the first step, and the method was quite different from Ferman’s prediction.
[Locking the molecule with mechanical power]
In the middle of the 20th century, in order to create more and more complex molecules, chemists tried to create molecular chains –
Let the ring molecule be connected to each other
Essence If someone can succeed in this, it will not only mean an amazing new molecule, but also create a new chemical key at the same time.
Under normal circumstances, the molecules are strongly bonded, and atoms shared electronics in it. And this dream wants to replace it with a mechanical key,
Let the molecules be chased each other, but their atoms do not directly interact
Officials from the organizing committee took out two sets of bread circles together to explain a pair of independent but connected elements. This year’s Nobel is probably dry with the bread …
In the 1950s and 1960s, some research teams reported that molecular chains were produced in their test tubes. However, the number they produced was small, and the method was too complicated, so the purpose was limited. People look at these achievements as curiosity, rather than functional chemistry. After many years of setbacks, many people gave up hope. By the early 1980s, this field was full of boredom.
However, major breakthroughs appeared in 1983.
Jean-Pierre Savich and the French research team led by him, only
Use an ordinary copper ion
It controls the molecules.
[Jean-Pierre Sovic gathers molecules around a copper ion]
In scientific research, inspiration often comes from completely different areas. Jean-Pierre Svic’s research field is optical chemistry. Chemists in this field try to develop molecular complexes that can capture solar energy and use it to drive chemical reactions. When Sorvic built one of these photochemical molecular models, he suddenly discovered the similarities of this model to the molecular chain:
Two molecules are wrapped around a core copper ion
This spiritual light made the research direction of Jean Pierre Svic. Using this optical chemical complex as a model, his research team built a ring -shaped molecules and a crescent -shaped molecule, and allowed these two molecules to be attracted by copper ions (Figure 1); copper ions used as cohesion to allow these The molecules stay together. Next, the research team used chemical means to “welded” the crescent molecules with another molecule, so that the other ring formed by the other ring -it forms the first chain of the chain with the previous ring molecules. Ring buckle. At this time, researchers can remove copper ions that have completed the task.
Figure 1: Let-Pierre Svic uses copper ion mechanical keys to lock the molecules. Please zoom in view
Chemists will discuss the “yield” of chemical reactions: those who form target molecules account for percentage of initial reactions. Earlier, in the research of building ring molecules, the most successful production rate was only a few percentage points. and
With the help of copper ions, Sovic can increase the yield to an amazing 42%
Essence Suddenly, the molecular chain is no longer just pure and fun.
With such a revolutionary method,
Sovic revives the field of topology chemistry
Essence In this area, researchers (often use metal ions) to lock molecularly in more and more complex structures -from long chains to complex conclusions.
Jean-Pierre Svic and J. Fraser Stodte (we will soon talk about him) is the leader of this field, their research team
The molecular versions of various cultural signs have been built, such as Sanye knot, Solomon knot, and Bolmian ring
Figure 2: a. Jean-Pierre Sovic created three-leaf tiens. This logo appears in the depiction of Celtics, such as nickel, and the depiction of the hammer of Thor; in Christianity, it represents the trinity. b. Bolomine, built by J. Fraser Stodte. It appeared in ancient Nordic stone paintings, and also represents these three. C. Solomon knot constructed by Stattart and Sovic, this pattern symbolizes the wisdom of King Solomon. It is often used in Islam and appeared in Roman mosaic paintings.
However, the beautiful molecules are just the side branch of the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry -return to the molecular machine.
[The first step towards the molecular motor]
Jean-Pierre Sovic quickly realized that the molecular chain (called “cable hydrocarbon, Catenanes) was not just a new type of molecule. He realized that he had taken the first step to create molecular machines.
In order to allow the machine to complete a task, it must include several parts that can operate with each other.
The two interoperability ring can meet this requirement. In 1994, Jean Pierre Sovic’s research team successfully constructed a kind of cable hydrocarbon. Its
One of them can rotate around the other after receiving energy
Essence This is the initial prototype of non -biomolecular machine.
Another chemist built a second molecular machine prototype. The place where the chemist grew up, a farm without electricity or no modern facilities in Scotland.
[Fraser Stodte put an molecular ring on a molecular axis]
Studat had no TV watched or computer when he was a child. What is used to pass the time is a puzzle game, which gives him a training needed by a chemist:
Recognize the shape and find how they can be combined together
Essence He is also attracted by a possibility in chemistry, that is, he can become a molecular artist -carving out of the world has never seen shape.
Later, Studat developed the molecules that made him win the 2016 Nobel Prize, using the mutual attraction between molecules. year 1991
His team created an open ring with lack of electrons on it; a long stick (axis) was also created. There are two enrichment electrons on the axis (Figure 3)
Essence When these two molecules meet in the solution, the one who is missing from the electrons will be attracted by the electronics, so the ring is covered on the shaft, and then close the ring to prevent the ring from falling. So they got “rotane” at a very high yield: a ring molecule was put on a shaft in a mechanical action.
Stedart then used the characteristics of the ring that moved on the axis.
When heating, the ring will jump forward between the two rich electron parts of the axis -like a miniature shuttle
Essence In 1994, they fully controlled their movements, so that it would no longer be freely moved as placed in other chemical systems.
[Elevator, muscle and mini chip]
Since 1994, Stardart’s research team has used various rotane to construct a variety of molecular machines, including elevators (2004, see Figure 4). It can
Raise yourself 0.7 nanometers on the surface
; There are also artificial muscles (2005), of which rotane
Can be bent with a very thin gold foil
Figure 4, molecular elevator.
Studat also joined forces to develop a rotane -based computer chip that can store 20KB of data. The transistor in the computer chip is very small, but it is huge comparable to the wheel alkyl chip. Researcher believes
The molecular computer chip can bring another revolution to computer technology like the silicon barrier tube.
Sovic is also exploring the potential of rotane. In 2000, his team successfully chased the two ring molecules together to form a flexible structure, a bit like the filament in the human muscles (Figure 5). They also created a kind of motor -like thing, and the rotane ring was rotated in different directions.
For molecular mechanical engineering,
The important goal is to create a motor that can continue to rotate in the same part.
In the 1990s, researchers in this field made many different attempts, but the first to rush through the Dutch Bernard L. Felinga.
[Felin Jia built the first molecular motor]
Similar to Statt, Ferrich also grew up in the farm and was attracted by the endless possibility of creative creation in chemistry. As he said in an interview: “
Perhaps the power of chemistry is not only understood, but also created to create unprecedented molecules and materials …
In 1999, when Ferrick built the first molecular motor, he used several wonderful places to rotate it in the same direction and keep this direction unchanged. Under normal circumstances, the movement of the molecule is random, and the probability of rotating molecules to the left and right is generally the same. However, Fergalin designed a molecule through mechanical construction to let him rotate in a specific direction (Figure 6).
The molecules are composed of two small rotor blades. They are two plane chemical structures and are connected by a pair of carbon -carbon bonds. Each blade is connected to a methyl -based, and they operate like a spine wheel with the blades, forcing the elements to rotate in the same direction. When the molecule is exposed to the ultraviolet pulse, a rotor blade jumps 180 degrees around the center of the center. Then, the spiny wheels were in place. When a bundle pulse arrived, the leaves turned 180 degrees again. This process is repeated, and the molecules are rotating in the same direction in a circle.
The speed of the first molecule motor was not fast, but Ferrich’s research team optimized it. in 2014,
The rotation speed of the motor reaches 12 million yuan per second
Essence In 2011, the research group also created a four -wheel drive nano -car, and a molecule chassis connects four motors as wheels. When the wheels are rotated, the nano car is moving forward on the surface.
Molecular motor of the small glass cylinder
In another exciting experiment, Ben Felinga’s research team
A 28 microns long glass cylinder was turned with molecular motor (10,000 times larger than the component motor itself)
In the experiment, they incorporated the motor into the liquid crystal (a liquid with a crystal structure). There are only 1%LCDs that have molecular motors. However, when the researchers begin to turn them, the rotation of the motor changes the structure of the liquid crystal. When the researchers put the glass cylindrical on the LCD, it also started to rotate by the rotation of the motor.
[Molecular tool box that can be used for constructing]
Jean-Pierre Sovic, Fraser Stuttart and Ben Felinka have created the path of molecular machine development. Therefore, a series of chemical structures born have become researchers all over the world. Created toolbox. The most shocking example is
A molecular robot that can capture and connect amino acids
Essence It was built based on rotane in 2013.
Other researchers are already connecting molecular motors to long polymers to make it make it
Formation of fine entanglement network
Essence When the molecular motor is shined to light, they wrap the polymer into a chaotic bundle. In this way, light can be stored in the molecules. If researchers can find a way to re -use these energy sources, a new battery can be developed. When the motor is entangled with a polymer, this material will be reduced, so it can be developed into a sensor controlled by light.
[Far away from balance -towards a new and vibrant chemistry]
The reason why these research progress can win the 2016 Nobel Prize in Chemistry is that the researchers drive the molecular system to stay away from the so -called balanced state. All chemical systems will try to reach a balance -a low -energy state–
But this is also a deadlock
Essence We can give out the example of life. When we eat, the molecules in the human body draw energy from food, promote our molecular system to stay away from balance and go to a higher energy state. Biomasous molecules then use these energy to promote indispensable chemical reactions so that the body can survive.
If the body is in a chemical balance, we will not die anymore
Like life molecules, the artificial molecular systems of Sovic, Studat and Ferrich can perform controlling tasks.
Chemistry has taken the first step towards the new world.
The time has clearly showed how the miniature has a revolutionary role in computer technology, and we have just seen the first stage of miniaturization to change machinery.
From the perspective of development, the current molecular motor is equivalent to the electric motor in the 1830s. At that time, the researchers would proudly display the various rotating crank and dynamic wheels in the laboratory. Train, washing machine, fan and food processor.
Electric in 1827. It probably also experienced a lot of “What is this use” question.
Therefore, after 32 years of speeches, Feiman still
I can only guess
What exciting development in front of us. But we can finally clearly answer the question he initially raised–
How small can you make?
At least 1000 times smaller than the diameter of the hair.
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