New materials are the material foundation that humans depend on, and the emergence and application of each new material will be accompanied by a huge leap in modern science and technology. It is not difficult to see from the history of modern science and technology that the breakthrough of each major technology depends on the development of corresponding new materials to a large extent. Therefore, new materials are the foundation of modern science and technology, and the United States calls new materials as “the flesh of science and technology development.” New material technology is called “mother of invention” and “industrial food”.
The innovation main body of the new material industry is developed countries and regions such as the United States, Japan and Europe. It has most of the large multinational companies that occupy absolute advantages in many aspects such as economic strength, core technology, research and development capabilities, and market share. Monopoly position. Among them, the country that leads the whole run is the United States. Japan’s advantages are in the fields of nanomaterials and electronic information materials. Europe has obvious advantages in structural materials, optical and photoelectric materials. China, South Korea, and Russia followed, and they are currently the world’s second echelon. China has comparative advantages in semiconductor lighting, rare earth permanent magnet materials, artificial crystal materials, South Korea in display materials, storage materials, and Russia in aerospace materials. In addition to a few countries such as Brazil and India, the new material industries of most developing countries are relatively backward. From the perspective of the new material market, North America and Europe have the world’s largest new material market, and the market is relatively mature. In the Asia -Pacific region, especially China, the new material market is in a rapid development stage. From a macro level, the focus of the global new material market is gradually moving towards Asia.
The world’s new materials producers American aluminum, DuPont, Bayer, GE plastic, Tao Chemistry, Japanese emperor, Japanese Toray, South Korea LG and other large multinational companies have accelerated the monopoly of the global new material industry, and in high -tech content, high content, high, high, high, high, high, high, high, high, high, high, high The added value of the new material product market remains dominant.
It is worth mentioning that developed countries still occupy a leading position in the international new material industry. The world’s new material leading companies are mainly concentrated in the United States, Europe and Japan. Among them, 6 companies in Japan, the United States, and Germany account for 70% of the global carbon fiber production capacity In the above, 5 companies in Japan and the United States account for more than 90%of the global 12 -inch wafer production, and three Japanese companies account for more than 90%of the global LCD backlighting material output.
It is worth mentioning that world -renowned enterprise groups have continuously expanded to the field of new materials with their advantages of technology research and development, funds and talents, especially in high value -added new materials products. For example, the famous Yuming is almost monopolized with high -end quartz sand products on the international market; such as Xinyue, Sumco, Siltronic, SUNEDISON and other companies around the world’s new material giants, accounting for more than 80%of the international semiconductor silicon material market share. More than 90%of the semi -insulation arsenide market is occupied by Japan’s Hitachi Electrician, Sumitomo Electrician, Mitsubishi Chemistry and Germany FCM.
Another example is 7 companies such as Dupont, Daikin, Hoechst, 3M, Ausimont, ATO, and ICI have 90%of the global organic fluorine materials production capacity. Cree’s silicon carbide substrate preparation technology has a very strong global market competitiveness. Philips controlled by Philips Lumileds company’s power -based white -ray LED international leader. %LED extension growth and chip preparation core patents.
In the field of small silk beam carbon fiber manufacturing, it is basically monopolized by Japan’s Dongli Fiber Company, Dongbang Company, Mitsubishi Company and the United States. The company and the German SGL companies occupy. The world’s advanced enterprises such as aluminum aluminum, German aluminum, and aluminum are dominated by the world’s advanced enterprises in the development and production of high -strength and tough aluminum alloy materials. The total output of three major titanium production companies such as Timet, RMI, and Allegen Teledyne accounts for 90%of the total US titanium processing, and is the main supplier of the world’s aviation -grade titanium material. The specific situation of the six major new materials and powers of the world’s six major new materials and powers are described below: as follows:
China is the largest industrial scale of the global new material industry. As we all know, the new material industry is considered to be the high -tech industry with the most development potential in the 21st century and has a huge impact on future development, and new materials are one of the key areas of international competition. The world is actively developing new materials, especially developed countries. It is worth mentioning that the new material industry is one of the seven major strategic emerging industries in my country, and it is the industrial foundation for the transformation and upgrading of the entire manufacturing industry. The scale of my country’s new material industry is about 2 trillion yuan.
China’s new materials industry, especially in traditional fields such as metal materials, textile materials, chemical materials, etc., the foundation of rare earth, advanced energy storage materials, photovoltaic materials, organic silicon, super hard materials, special stainless steel, glass fiber and their composite materials, etc. The production capacity is at the forefront of the world. After decades of struggle, China’s new material industry has continued to grow and grow, and has achieved obvious achievements in system construction, industrial scale, technological progress, etc., has made significant contributions to the national economy and national defense construction. Base. The demand for new materials in China will show a continuous growth trend. By 2025, its output value will exceed 10 trillion yuan, and the development prospects will be very broad! It is worth mentioning that as early as 2011, the total output value of the new material industry in my country was only 1.8 trillion yuan. By 2019, the total output value of the new material industry in my country has increased to 4.5 trillion yuan, a year -on -year increase of 15.4%. It is expected that it will be expected by 2021. Over 7 trillion yuan.
China has achieved “parallel” or even “leading” with international advanced levels in some advanced basic materials, key strategic materials, and cutting -edge new materials. For example, in terms of key strategic materials, six types of materials in the top seven consumables of SMIC have realized domestic procurement; Nanshan Group aluminum alloy thick board has passed Boeing certification and signed a supply contract; A 50%decrease than traditional motor and 40%weighing; for example, the world’s first high -temperature gas -cold pile nuclear power plant with the characteristics of the fourth -generation nuclear power characteristics of the fourth -generation nuclear power characteristics exceeds 85%; Preliminary applications such as such as areas, etc.
China’s graphene technology is the world’s leading level. Graphene technology is a cutting -edge technology field for the development of countries in the world today. Because of its unparalleled characteristics, it has a vital role in the development of new materials in the future. The 2017 World Graphene Innovation Conference was opened in Changzhou, China, which means that Chinese graphene technology has begun to be at the forefront of the world. It is worth mentioning that graphene materials were first discovered by British scientists. Graphene is known as the thinnest and hardest materials in the world. It is known as “black gold” and “king of new materials”. According to it, the thickness of the graphene can reach one in 200,000 of the hair, and the intensity is 200 times the steel. Scientists predict that graphene will be the most important new materials in the 21st century, and market application prospects will be inestimable. Graphene technology has been listed as a priority development material technology in many countries in the world. Although China’s contact with graphene technology has only been in just a few years but its development momentum is fierce, and China has huge potential markets.
After years of development, Chinese artificial crystal materials have developed in the world’s leading level and realized commercialization of ultraviolet non -linear optical crystals such as boric acid crickets and lithium boric acid; key technical indicators of laser crystals and solar cells have reached the international advanced level, and photovoltaic power generation costs Beying below 1 yuan/kwh).
China’s lithium -ion battery positive and negative electrode materials and electrolytes meet the requirements of small batteries, and key materials such as septum and electrolyte lithium salts are replaced by imports; ultra -high molecular weight polyethylene fiber has been sharply reduced to the gap between developed countries. The T300 -level carbon fiber has achieved stable production, and the single -line production capacity is increased to 1200T; the T700 and T800 -level carbon fiber have achieved batch supply capacity. Copper aluminum composite technology; China’s submarine pipeline steel X65, X70, X80 and thick wall marine oil and gas welded pipes and chemical ships have all been localized, especially low -cost graphene has begun to produce, and is used to touch screens, heat conductors Membrane and other information and communication devices. China’s breakthroughs in key technical fields and the increasing increase in new materials varieties have enabled my country’s high -end metal structure materials, new inorganic non -metal materials, high -performance composite materials to guarantee significantly, and the level of self -sufficiency in advanced polymer materials and special metal functional materials has gradually increased. Essence
China has the world’s most complete liquid metal industrial chain, which is made from raw materials to the patent to process. It can produce a large -scale inferior non -crystal alloys. Especially in block -shaped molding technology, it has mastered the core technology of liquid metal metal. It is worth mentioning that China has the three core technologies of materials formula, equipment manufacturing and molding technology. They all have independent intellectual property rights and are the only countries in the world that can announce the ability of large block -shaped non -crystal metal molding capabilities to the world. As a result, the development technology development technology of China’s blocks has gone at the forefront of the world.
Another example is the clinical approval of the degradable pure magnesium bone nails developed by the Institute of Metal Research of the Chinese Academy of Sciences to obtain the clinical approval of the State Drug Administration, becoming the first medical device product of the degradation of magnesium to obtain clinical approval, which is also the first case in the world. Pure magnesium III implant.
Japan is the world’s most advanced new material production technology. The new material industry has been considered internationally as the most developed industry in the 21st century and has a huge impact on future development. As the country with the most advanced production technology production technology, Japan attaches great importance to the development of new material technology, and especially focusing on the development of new materials as the second largest goal of national high -tech. Therefore, Japanese material companies have formed A leading leader.
The Japanese Cabinet Conference passed the “Fifth Science and Technology Basic Plan (2016-2020)” as early as 2016. The Japanese government plans to ensure that the scale of R & D investment will account for more than 4%of the GDP ratio in the future.
It is worth mentioning that the Japanese machinery manufacturing industry has long maintained the global advanced level and its developed material industry is inseparable. For example, in terms of the global market share of new materials, Japan’s new material industry has taken an absolute leading position in the environment and new energy materials world markets with its advanced R & D advantages, advanced R & D results, and practical development efforts.
Japan has the world’s leading new material giants: such as the world -renowned Kyocera plant; Mitsui Chemicals, etc.; Japan also has a world -renowned university: such as the famous University of Tokyo. The University of Tokyo has trained 16 Minister of the Prime Minister, Twenty -one (Japan) Parliament Speaker, and thirteen CEOs of 500 major companies in Fabei. Eleven Nobel Prize winners, six Wolf winners, one Phils Award, three Robe Cogho Awards, four Gildner International Awards and four Prubzk Architects winners Essence For example, Nagoya University. It is Japan’s top and world -class well -known research national comprehensive university, and is the highest institutional institution in central Japan. Nagoya University has trained six Nobel Prize winners and 1 Phils prize winner.
Japan’s material science has become the top technology in the world. In particular, the level of material science and strength to greatly determine the highest level of technology of a country. For example, the world’s most advanced armored vehicle is necessary for high -quality materials; the most advanced missile shell must be extremely high -quality materials. In particular, aircraft engine blades need excellent and high -quality high -tech new materials. Another example is the world’s high -precision military radar semiconductor components also requires new materials for excellent selection.
Japan is far ahead of the most developed countries in the field of new materials, and it is not a grade even in the most developed countries in the United States, even including Russia and developed countries and Japan. For example, in the three fields of high -precision materials technology: the first is to create intercontinental ballistic missiles and shells and aircraft skeleton -high -strength carbon fiber material; second, the world’s highest performance active active phase control arms radar -wide ban band belt Semiconductor and receiving component materials; once again make new turbine engine turbine blades -high -performance single crystal blades. It can be said that Japan is far ahead in these three top science and technology fields, and other countries around the world can only look back.
As we all know, the most advanced turbine engine blades of the 5th generation single crystal materials. Due to the very harsh working environment of the turbine blades, it is still possible to maintain a very high speed of tens of thousands of rotations under extreme high temperature and high pressure. The requirements are quite harsh. It is worth mentioning that there are five generations in the world’s single crystal materials. The more the last generation, the less you can see the shadow of the old -fashioned developed countries, especially the military superpowers, Russia, even more. The fifth -generation single crystal technology level is the world of Japan. The world’s top single crystal material is the fifth-generation single crystal TMS-162/192 developed by Japan. Japan has become the only country in the world that can create fifth-generation single crystal materials, and has absolute saying in the global market.
Another example is the top European company in Europe, the world’s top level company, the famous British engine company Roy Royce (RR), which is the largest aviation engine company in Europe. Nuclear -powered submarine’s nuclear -powered device, among which aviation engines are the world’s prestigious fist products. Such a world -famous company in the world can only worship and bow in front of Japan’s new materials. For example, the British RR even imported Japan’s single crystal materials to make its own advanced TRENT turbine fan engine. Therefore, Japan’s new material technology has made many countries around the world inseparable from it, and it is difficult to leave. An important reason is that the new materials in Japan are not only excellent quality, but also have a very “horrible” service life.
Japan’s leading world is also well -known carbon fiber materials. Carbon fiber is regarded as the most ideal material for creating missiles by the military industry because of its light quality and high strength and high strength. For example, the “dwarf” missile in the United States is the small solid intercontinental strategic missile in the United States. The missile is also the earliest intercontinental strategic missile in the world to use the full -process guidance. Among them, Japan’s new materials and technologies are used.
For example, the “Trident II” D-5 submarine missiles in the United States used to be the world’s most advanced submarine ballistic missile. It was once known as the “pride” of the US Navy’s strategic nuclear forces. This missile uses a new composite material in Japan. Another example is the new intercontinental ballistic missile of the French M51, and the M51 submarine ballistic missile was once a new generation of strategic nuclear missile developed by the French atomic Military Affairs Bureau and the French Atomic Energy Agency. At least by 2030, the sea -based nuclear force with the M51 missile as the main body will become the main body of the French nuclear force, which can consolidate France’s leadership in European defense independence. French missiles still use new composite materials in Japan.
Undoubtedly, global advanced strategic missiles use carbon-carbon and carbon-resin composite materials to create the shells and nozzles of intercontinental missiles. In this technology, Japan is still the world’s leading level. For example, Japan’s T1000 strength is as high as 7060MPa, and its stretching modulus is also very high in high -strength carbon fibers (even reached 284GPa). These technical indicators far exceed the highest level of American IM9.
In the field of carbon fiber organic composite materials, the former Soviet National Graphite Structural Materials Research Institute, former Soviet polymer fiber research institute, all Russian aviation materials research institute can produce high -strength carbon fiber with high -strength carbon fiber with stretching strength 2500 to 3000MPa and 250GPa stretching mold volume of 250GPa. And the high -modular carbon fiber with a modular amount of 400 to 600GPa. Especially in the later period, 4000 ～ 5000MPa medium -sized carbon fiber was developed. Nevertheless, Russia’s carbon fiber products still do not exceed Japan’s technical level in performance and level.
Among the global carbon fiber manufacturers, Japan has the top three top companies in Dongli, Dongbang and Mitsubishi, all of which represent the world’s top technical level.
Three, the United States
The United States is an important leader in the world’s new material field. Deputy Dean of the Digital China Institute of Peking University once believed that the United States’ technical level in new energy, new materials and life engineering far ahead of other countries in the world.
It is worth mentioning that the United States has listed new materials as the six key technologies that affect economic prosperity and national security. Five materials in the 22 key technologies determined (the synthesis and processing of materials, electronics and optoelectronic materials, ceramics, composite materials, high -performance metals and alloys). The development of new materials in the United States is a large -scale research and development plan for the Ministry of National Defense and the Aerospace Administration as the leader. It is mainly to promote and ensure the research and development of new materials for universities, scientific research institutions and enterprises in the form of national defense procurement contracts.
As early as 2011, U.S. President Obama announced a “Promoting Manufacturing Partnership” plan more than 500 million US dollars. Through the cooperation of government, universities and enterprises, it strengthened the US manufacturing industry and invested more than $ 100 million in the “Material Genome Program “(Materials Genome Initiative) is one of its components. The “Materials Genome Plan” intends to cooperate with teams at all stages through the development cycle of the new material, strengthen the combination of “official property, research and research”, and focus on the collaboration and sharing between experimental technology, computing technology and databases. The cycle is halved, and the cost is reduced to one quarter of the existing. In order to accelerate the progress of the United States in terms of clean energy, national security, human health and well -being, and the next generation of labor training, the United States has greatly strengthened the international competition in the field of new materials in the field of new materials. force.
The United States focuses on the computing science of biomedical materials, information materials, nanomaterials, extreme environmental materials and material computing as the main cutting -edge research field, and supports the development of life science, information technology, environmental science and nanotechnology. Demand in important departments and fields. As a result, the United States has formulated a series of strategic plans related to new materials, mainly including: “21st Century National Nano Outline”, “National Nano Technology Plan (NNI)”, “Future Industrial Materials Plan”, “Optical Electronics Plan”, and, and,, “Optical Electronics Plan”, and “Optoelectronics Plan”. “Photovoltaic Plan”, “Next Generation Lighting Light Source Plan”, “Advanced Automobile Material Plan”, “Fossil Energy Materials Plan”, “Architectural Materials Plan”, “NSF Advanced Materials and Craft Process Plan”, “Material Genome Project”, etc. The United States has made great progress in the development of new materials technology. For example, under the strategic new material plan, as early as January 2011, American scientists developed a “hidden sound clothing” that made by super -agent materials could not be detected; In June; in June, the “induced” polymer peptide chain was self -assembled into nano -rope, and the performance of self -assembly nano -rope was not inferior to natural materials; in September, a peculiar new super conductor was developed based on 镱 镱 镱, which can be reached in the natural state. “Quantum critical point”; in November, the ultra -black materials developed can absorb almost all light that shines on it, with an absorption rate of more than 99%; in the same month, the most developed materials in the world, its energy absorption performance and artificial rubber Similarly, it is 100 times lighter than polystyrene foam plastic.
The United States has many top new materials giants around the world: such as Exxonmobil, Dowchemical, Dupont, 3M (3M), and American Iron and Steel Company (UnitedStates Steel), 7, PPG Industrial Corporation (PPG Industries), AirProduts & Chemicals, Eastman Chemical, Corning ‘
The United States has the world’s top new material institutions: such as the famous Northwest University, Massachusetts University of Science and Technology (the first course of the School of Materials Science and Engineering), and the University of Illinois Ernar-Champagne , Metallurgical, mining, etc. come from the merger; majors are divided into 6 directions such as biological materials and electronic materials; the national ranking of materials in the United States is the first three years.), University of 4 California Berkeley (the world’s most prestigious and top public public ), Stanford University (one of the most outstanding universities in the world), the University of California Santa Barbara Branch (the top American research science and high academic reputation research public university.)
Cornell University (the size of the school at that time), the most American university at that time), Pennsylvania State University Parker (one of the top ten public universities in the United States), and Gramatic Institute of Technology of Geori Institute of Technology in Georgia Institute of Technology (the top science and engineering college in the United States. Research and develop materials for the application of next -generation engineering), the University of Michigan (with the University of California Berkeley and the University of Wisconsin Madison, it is known as the “public university model”. The material ranking is very high)
The United States has a large number of global top institutes and leading laboratories: for example, in the field of new materials research institutions, there are 210 scientific research institutions, such as the National Laboratory of Oak Ling, Agen National Laboratory, and Emes Labs 17 The national laboratory with the top scientific research strength, as well as the laboratory of 13 top science and technology R & D companies such as DuPont, Boeing, IBM, and the main force involved in the research of new materials -university laboratories such as Massachusetts University of Science and Technology and Harvard University, as high as 180 Essence
1. National Laboratory of Oak Ridge:
Main materials research content: magnetic materials, superconducting, laser pulse ablation, film, lithium battery materials, thermoelectric materials, surface, polymer, structural ceramics and alloy basic research.
2. Brook Haiwen National Laboratory:
Main material research content: high temperature superconductivity, magnetic, solid structure and phase transformation, polymer conductor
3. Emis Lab:
Main material research content: experiment and theoretical research on rare earth elements in new machinery, magnetism and superconducting.
4. Agung National Laboratory:
Main material research content: high temperature superconductivity, polymer super conductor, film magnetism, surface science.
5. Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory:
Main material research content: laser spectrum, superconducting, film, femlose processing, biopiplazonth, polymer and complex, surface science, and theoretical research.
6. Lawrence Lobomore National Laboratory:
Main material research content: metal and alloy, ceramic, laser materials, alloy super plasticity.
7. Northwest Pacific National Laboratory:
Main materials research content: metal and alloy stress corrosion cracks, ceramic materials high temperature corrosion fatigue, ceramic material radiation effect.
8. Loslamos National Laboratory:
Main material research content: the theory of electronic materials, microstructure development, plasma immersion of plasma immersion of surface hardness, corrosion resistance and abrasion resistance without ion injection technology.
9. Sandia National Laboratory:
Main material research content: ceramic coatings solution-gel chemistry, nanocrystalline material development, and metal, glass and ceramic material surface adhesion and wetting.
10. American Standard and Technical Research Institute (NIST):
Main material research content: non -regulatory agency of the US Department of Commerce. NIST has 6 laboratories, including engineering laboratories, information technology laboratories, material survey laboratories, physical measurement laboratories, nano technology centers, and NIST neutral research centers.
11. US Aerospace Administration (NASA)
: Main material research content: mainly involved in new metal materials and high -performance composite materials.
12. California Nano Research Center:
Main materials research content: rapid commercial research on nano -science and nanotechnology. The work carried out by CNSI represents the four target areas related to nano -systems including energy, environment, health, medicine, and information technology.
13. Institute of National Adjusting Materials Manufacturing Innovation Research Institute:
Main material research content: new metal materials, additive/3D printing materials, development gradient and customized materials.
14. Harvard University Research Center
: Main material research content: Harvard University has multiple materials research centers, including the quantum science and engineering society, nano system center, understanding of different levels of biological functions, and biomaterial research rooms that solve medical problems and equipment. At the School of Engineering and Applied Sciences of Harvard, there are the most professors to study materials science.
15. Provincial University of Technology Research Center:
Main material research content: MIT has a research team and research room and research room, nanotechnology laboratory, advanced material laboratory, special metal materials and other fast -forming technology research research The rapid molding laboratory, advanced materials and structural technology laboratories, as well as material research departments such as self -assembly laboratories that are studying 4D printing. Among them, the Whitehead Institute in the Department of Biology and Biological Engineering represents the highest level of biology research across the United States. There are 15 research rooms under the underlying. In terms of research, it mainly focuses on human genetics, genes, immune systems, RNA and other fields.
16. The Chemical Engineering Department of Princeton University:
Main material research content: the main base of polymer material research and biological material research. There is a special composite material research team below the Institute of Materials Science and Technology;
17. Institute of Materials Science, Connecticut University:
Main material research content: The research of the research institute’s material science research spans metal polymers, metal nanomaterials, biomedical metal materials and other fields.
18. University of Pennsylvania:
Main materials research content: new high -strength, high -tough alloy materials, dedicated to the basic system research of inter -metal inter -metal chemicals, such as titanium aluminum alloy and silver molybdenum alloy.
19. School of Engineering from Stanford University:
Main material research content: mainly for transportation tools with lighter quality, better performance, and novel structures.
20. The University of California Santa Barbara:
Main material research content: In addition to several top nanomaterial laboratories in the world, the school also has many other laboratories related to materials research, including material research laboratories, multi -functional materials and structural centers, energy -saving materials centers, composite materials Research Institute, Advanced Materials Center, International Material Research Center, etc.
In summary, the reason why the United States’ high -tech and new materials are so strong in the world are largely benefited from the high attention of the United States for new materials, especially the effective combination of new American materials “industry -university -research politics” from all walks of life. Essence The reason is that the new material is the basis of the development of science and technology. Only when the new materials are strong, the science and technology of a country can truly lead.
The German new material industry is well received by the world. In June 2012, Germany launched a long -term research project of “Nano Material Safety” to understand the impact of various types of nanomaterials on the surrounding environment, and the safety risk assessment of nano -materials was evaluated through quantitative methods. In November 2012, Germany launched the “raw material economy strategy” scientific research project in order to develop a special process that can efficiently use and recycle raw materials, and strengthen the recycling and utilization of rare earth, tadpoles, 镓, platinum metals.
In order to encourage various social forces to participate in the research and development of new materials, Germany has promulgated the implementation of “Matfo” (1984-1993), “Material Technology Matech” (as of 2003), and “Innovation Wing Wing for Industry and Society”. (Started in 2004) three plans. Wing planning emphasizes the closerness of the materials, and is committed to coordinating the research of high -level materials among departments.
It is worth mentioning that in April 2013, Germany promulgated the “Suggestions on the Implementation of Industry 4.0 Strategy” white paper. After that, the German 4.0 project was included in the 10 future projects of the High -tech Strategy 2020, and promoted the new industrial revolution characterized by intelligent manufacturing, the Internet, new energy, new materials, and modern creatures. The German business community generally believes that ensuring and expanding the leading position in materials research and development is the key to its success in international competition. In March 2016, Germany released the Digital Strategy2025, which determined the steps and specific implementation measures for digital transformation. The key pillar projects include industrial 3D printing.
Industry 4.0 is one of the top ten future projects proposed by the German government’s “German 2020 High Technology Strategy”.
The important foundation of the German new material industry comes from the four major areas:
Chemical and pharmaceutical industry:
Germany is the world’s largest exporter of chemical products. It is the preferred chemical investment area in Europe. It has comprehensive infrastructure, research institutions and high -quality labor. According to data from the German Chemical Industry Association, the famous German chemical and pharmaceutical companies include: BASF, Bayer, Langson, Han Gao, Winchuang, Merck, Bollinger, and so on.
: The mechanical and equipment manufacturing industry is the industry with the largest number of employment in Germany. The famous German mechanical and equipment manufacturing giants include: Thison Krupp, West Mark, Heidelberg printing, Heidek, Fourt, Putzmest, Tonguku, etc.
Automobile and automobile accessories industry
: Germany is a well -known global automobile manufacturing power. The global market share of high -end automotive automotive in Germany has exceeded 70%. The famous major German car manufacturers include: Volkswagen, Daimler, BMW, Audi, Porsche, Aubbood (Commercial Vehicle) and other vehicle companies and Bosch, Mainland, ZF (ZF), Thyson Krupp , Siemens VDO and other auto parts companies.
Electronic and electrical industry:
Germany has the world’s leading electronics industry. The development of the German electronic component industry depends to a large extent on the development of the German automotive industry. The automotive electronics industry is the largest consumer in German electronic components. The communication field, electronic data processing and industrial electronics are also its main users, accounting for about 20%of the sales share. Famous world -class companies: leading companies in the German electronics industry include Siemens, Bingfei, Bosch, GIESECKE & Devrient, Kuka, etc.
Germany has a world -renowned new material company
Established in 1865, BASF SE is the largest chemical product base in the world. BASF Group has more than 160 wholly -owned subsidiaries or joint ventures in 41 countries in Europe, Asia, and North and South America.
Yingchuang Industrial Group (AG) is a world -leading special chemical enterprise. 80%of Yingchuang’s sales are derived from the business that occupies the leading position in the market.
Langson Group is a world -leading German special chemical group, headquarters and major business operations in Cologne. In 2004, Bayer Group conducted a strategic reorganization spin -off, peeling off its chemical business and part of the polymer business, and Langson was born.
4. Han Gao:
The German Han Gao Company was founded on Aachen on September 26, 1876. The business of Han Gao Company focused on application chemistry. After more than 140 years of development, Hanao has expanded from 80 workers to a world company.
Sigri Group is one of the world’s leading carbon graphite materials and related products manufacturers. It has a complete business chain from carbon graphite products to carbon fiber and composite materials.
6. EOS 3D printing company:
Established in 1989, it is a world-renowned fast-forming equipment manufacturer and E-manufacturing provider.
Russia is a traditional manufacturing power, especially in scientific and technological innovation in emerging industries such as new materials. It is worth mentioning that Russia is in the world’s leading position in the fields of aerospace, energy materials, and new chemical materials. At the same time, Russia’s development strategic goal is to strive to renew the leading position of these materials in the world. The development of the national economic development and the exit of national defense has important influence.
For example, the material scientist of the National University of Science and Technology of Russia has developed a cyanide ceramics, which can theoretically bear 4,200 degrees Celsius high temperature. Prior to this, the world’s most high -temperature -resistant and most difficult melting artificial substances were carbides. In addition, Russia has adopted the SHS method (self -burning technology) synthesis compounds in as many as 700 species, and has ranked a leading position in the world.
The strategic goal of Russia to develop new materials in Russia is: on the one hand, striving to continue to maintain the leading position of certain materials fields in the world, such as aerospace, energy industry, chemical industry, metal materials, superconducting materials, polymerization materials, etc.; Vigorously develop areas that have impact on the development of the national economy and improving national defense strength, such as the electronic information industry, communication facilities, and computer industry. The current situation is due to the relative lag of information, communication, and computer industries, which has a negative impact on the development of the already advantageous field. Therefore, it has also become the focus of attention to the Russian government and the scientific and technological circles.
Russia has always regarded new materials related technology industries as the leading industry of national strategy and national economy. For example, the “Materials and Technical Development Strategy before 2030”, which was released in April 2012, listed 18 key materials strategies as the development direction, including intelligent materials, inter -metal compounds, nanomaterials and coatings, single crystal heat resistance super super super super Alloy, composite materials, etc., also formulated the development strategy of the main application fields of the new material industry.
Another example is the Russian Academy of Sciences released the “Foreign Science and Technology Development Forecast to 2030” in 2015. The content mainly includes 7 scientific and technological priority development directions, namely information communication technology, biotechnology, medical and guarantee, new materials and nanotechnology, natural resources rational use, and natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, the rational use of natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, the rational use of natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, the rational use of natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, the rational use of natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, the rational use of natural resources, and natural resources, and natural resources, the rational use of natural resources, and the rational use of natural resources. Transportation and aerospace systems, energy efficiency and energy saving.
Russia’s mineral resources are very rich, and the reserves of coal, petroleum, natural gas, peat, iron, manganese, copper, lead, zinc, nickel, cobalt, titanium, titanium, and chromium are at the forefront of the world. In terms of development of new materials industries, Russia is currently Take the development of new materials such as new materials as the leading industry of the national strategy and the national economy to vigorously support, promote, and implement it.
Russia has a very clear research direction and many world -level research institutions:
Russia’s R & D direction: The main Russian materials of Russia’s new materials are structural materials and functional materials. They are specifically metal materials, ceramic materials, composite materials, polymer materials, high -purity materials, and biological, superconducting and nanomaterials.
Russia listed the following 9 new materials and chemicals as one of the science and technology planning:
Ceramics and glass materials
Special performance metal and alloy
Evaluation of important strategic raw materials
Comprehensive mining and deep processing technology
Polymerization materials and composite materials
Super hard synthetic material
Micro Metallurgical Production Technology Model
Russia has a world -level new material research institute:
Institutions engaged in metal material research are:
The Institute of Metal Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Strong Physics and Materials of the Siberia Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Rare Metal Industry, Institute of Aviation Materials, Institute of Structure Materials, Institute of Heavy Industry, Nonferrous Metallurgical Research Institute, National Aviation Technology Research Institute The Institute of Light -quality Alloy and several research associations and enterprises.
Institutions engaged in ceramic materials research include:
The Institute of Strong Physics and Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences Siberia Branch, Institute of Solid Chemistry and Minerals, Institute of Silicate Chemistry, Institute of Aviation Materials, Institute of Structure Materials, Institute of Polymer Fiber of Russia, National Aviation Technology Research Institute, All Russia Light Alloy Research Institute and several scientific research and production consortiums and enterprises.
Institutions engaged in composite materials research include:
The Institute of Synthetic Materials of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Institute of Strong Physics and Materials, the Institute of Silicate Chemistry, the Institute of Aviation Materials, the Institute of Graphite Structural Materials, the Central Special Mechanical Manufacturing Research Institute, and the Institute of Russia Lightweight Alloy Research Institute And several scientific research and production consortia and enterprises.
Institutions engaged in polymer materials research include:
The Academy of Sciences of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Polymer Materials, Institute of Aviation Materials, National Polymer Chemistry and Technology Research Institute, All -Russian Polymer Fiber Research Institute, National Institute of Aviation Technology, and several scientific research and production consortia and enterprises.
Institutions engaged in high -purity materials research:
Research institutions such as metal research institutes, high -purity material chemistry research institutes, rare metal industry research institutes, and institutes of material research institutes and scientific research and production consortia and enterprises.
Britain is one of the world’s traditional new materials. For example, the world’s first large plastic bridge appeared in the UK in October 1992. The first composite material in the world is mainly the large -scale bridge built by glass fibers to enhance plastic construction in Aberfidi in Scotland. The bridge was jointly designed by the engineering and technical staff of Monsere and Dundi University. The bridge is a suspension structure and is used to connect a golf course on both sides of a river. The bridge is 62 meters long and 2 meters wide, but the weight is only 15 tons.
The British government announced in May 2019 that it promised to achieve net zero emissions by 2050. The Henry Royce Institute of Henry Royce is composed of nine leading institutions (including Liz) participating in advanced materials research, and has identified academic methods with the Institute of Physics and Manufacturing Institute of Cambridge University. Industry researchers can help provide affordable and reliable green technology. The result of the cooperation is the five technology “roadmap”, which describes how the development of many key research areas plays an important role in reducing greenhouse gas emissions. These roadmaps cover:
The materials for photovoltaic systems will increase the power generated by solar panels.
Low -carbon methods used to produce hydrogen and chemical raw materials.
Thermal power energy conversion material exists in heating, refrigeration and air conditioning systems.
The heat conversion material can eliminate the use of carbon in heating and refrigeration systems.
Materials for low -loss electronic equipment will cause more energy -saving electronic equipment and calculations.
The researchers also put forward a series of suggestions, including calling for increasing investment in materials research and testing facilities, formulating new laws to ensure the use of new green technology and sustainability as the core of any new advanced materials.
Professor Linfield of Physics and Astronomy, Dr. Katharina Zeissler, and Dr. Oscar Cespedes coordinated the technical roadmap for low loss electronics. The plan was supported by CSConnect, representing research and technical organizations representing the semiconductor industry.
It is worth mentioning that the British Cambridge Science and Technology Park is the most successful science park in Europe and one of the most famous science parks in Europe. Cambridge Science and Technology Park, led by Cambridge University, is committed to developing high -tech industries such as life science, biomedicine, artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, new materials, national defense, and has more than 120 enterprises. 61%of them originated from The University of Cambridge, 50%of companies have been established for more than ten years, and 30%of companies are foreign companies.
New Material Research Institution in the UK:
As a department of the Academy of Physics of the University of Cambridge from 1904 to 1989, the Cavendi Laboratory produced a total of 29 Nobel Prize winners from 1989, accounting for one -third of the total number of Nobel Prize at the University of Cambridge. If it is regarded as a university, the number of winners can be ranked 20th in the world and tied with Stanford University. Its scientific research efficiency is amazing, the results are abundant, and the world is unparalleled. During the heyday, even the “one -half of the world’s physics discovery from the world comes from the Cavendi Laboratory.
British ARM company:
British ARM is the world’s leading semiconductor intellectual property (IP) provider. More than 95%of smartphones and tablets around the world use ARM architecture. ARM has designed a large amount of cost -effective, low energy -consuming RISC processors, related technologies and software. As early as 2014, the global shipment based on ARM technology was 12 billion yuan. From birth to now, there have been 60 billion chips based on ARM technology. The technical has the characteristics of high performance, low cost and energy consumption. It has a leading position in the fields of smart machines, tablets, embedded control, multimedia numbers and other processors.
TERAVIEW of Tai Hez Company in the UK:
Founded in 2001, British startup Teraview was the first company in the world to be dedicated to the imaging and spectrum applications of Taritz. The company’s Tahez technology is mainly for research laboratories and global production facility departments. It can be applied in the fields of pharmaceuticals, automobiles, semiconductor packaging and other fields, which can greatly shorten the detection time. It is said that in the IC packaging, it takes 7-10 days to use the traditional regional detection method, and the company’s Tahez technology can be completed within 1 day. At the same time, it can greatly reduce the damage caused by the detection to IC packaging. The company’s Tahez technology can also be used for the detection of weapons and explosives, the monitoring of drug quality, the detection of coating surface on the car and related fields, and the medical imaging of cancer testing.
Super Ying Material Enterprise Metaboards:
Metaboards was founded in 2016 and was founded by the professor and researchers at Oxford University. They are trying to use a “super -yin material” to propose a better wireless charging solution. The new scheme can solve the current shortcomings of wireless charging. For example, if the device is required to connect with the charger, the new technology can also use one charging point to charge multiple devices.
Seven, South Korea
South Korea is one of the world -class powers of the new material. For example, in October 2020, the EunJoo Jang team of Samsung Advanced Technology Research Institute reported a synthesis of a quantum -free blue light ZNTESE / ZNSE / ZNS quantum dot with a quantum production rate of 100%. The device obtained showed up to 20.2 % of EQE, with a brightness of 88,900 CD M-2. At 100 cd M-2, T50 = 15,850 h, this is the highest value reported by the global Blu-ray QD-LED so far!
As early as 2001, South Korea became the fifth material exporter of the world, and launched the famous “Fast-Follower” strategy, hoping to rank among the semifinals. Driven by South Korean companies, driven by the “Fast-Follower” strategy, it has gradually drove up companies in developed countries in the raw material industry. South Korea became the fifth material exporter/area in the world in 2001. At that time, the material industry accounted for more than 45%of the total exports of South Korea, reaching 68%by 2015.
South Korea hopes that in the next ten years, it will become the desire to realize the world’s fourth largest exporter in the field of “core materials”. For example, in Korean universities and research institutions, many R & D work is progressing in many fields such as information technology, biotechnology and environmental technology. , Organic materials for super molecular materials, solar cells and thermal conversion, drug transmission of self -assembly nanoparticles, composite materials for energy generation and storage, gas gel, high -performance supercapacitors, secondary lithium batteries, etc.
South Korea’s material scholars and engineers want to be the “First Movers” of new material technology, instead of “FAST FOLLOWERS”, which is not an advanced technology of other developed countries, especially in the era of Industry 4.0. South Korea has been in the core camp of new materials, such as “graphene” is a typical example. Graphene can be widely used in many different fields including solar cells, semiconductors, transparent panels, and luminous materials. Although graphene was first invented by foreign scientists, South Korea was a “earliest actor” in the research and development innovation of the graphene industry. In 2016, South Korea is the country with the most domestic and international graphene patents: for example, 225 patents from Samsung, South Korea, 180 LG, 147 Chengjun Pavilion University, 129 KAIST Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), and Seoul National State 78 universities.
The Ministry of Knowledge Economy and the Ministry of Education and Science and Technology of Korea have previously stated that by 2020, it will invest 513 billion won (about 2.82 billion yuan) to promote the “nano -fusion 2020 project”.
It is worth mentioning that the South Korean government released the “Third Science and Technology Basic Plan” in 2013, which proposed that it will promote the development of 120 national strategic technologies (including 30 key technologies) in 5 areas, of which 30 key technologies include advanced technologies including advanced technologies including advanced technologies. Technical materials, knowledge information security technology, big data application technology, etc. South Korea’s future growth power plan, concentrates on supporting new generation of semiconductors, nano -elastic elements, ecological materials, biomedical materials, high -performance structure materials, etc.
In 2014, the South Korean government formulated the overall planning of the development of 3D printing technology industry, and strengthened the construction of basic industrial environments such as technological development, infrastructure construction, talent training, and improvement of legal systems. In 2016, on the basis of the original policy and promotion work, in order to improve the competitiveness of the Korean industry, South Korea formulated the “South Korea’s 3D Printing Industry Revitalization Plan (2017-2019)”. Global leading countries.