“The lantern shakes the rainbow Zhang Huatang, and the Yue San Yao is full of the banned city.” The history of the Chinese palace lantern has a long history, and it has been related to its related descriptions as early as the Shang and Zhou dynasties. For thousands of years, the palace lanterns have continued to develop with the evolution of society. By the Qing Dynasty, it reached a peak of historical peaks. Its rich selection, exquisite production, changeable shape, rich and graceful, condensed wisdom and ingenuity and fine skills.
At the “Zhang Lantern Lantern Light -the Palace Museum’s Tibetan Palace Lantern Festival” exhibited at the Beijing Optical Science and Technology Museum, the nine carefully restored palace lamps debuted for the first time to serve as three major things in the three festivals of the year, life, and marriage of the important content of Chinese folk customs. To cut the entrance and lead people to relive the Chinese civilization memory carried by the palace lamp. The palace lantern in history is not only a Chinese color that tastes the essence of Chinese craftsmanship, but it can also be known that they are hoping for people’s hopes for light and happiness, expressing their praise for celebration events, and conveying the Changlong and Wu Minan of the National Games. Pray. This is a heavy material cultural heritage.
■ The Wanshou Lantern, which is more than ten meters high, was set up in the new year of the Ming and Qing court.
When resigning the old and welcoming the new, the palace lamps are naturally indispensable. Some palace lamps have also become the instrument of the New Year, and they are given different auspicious meanings. The lantern welcoming the spring, which has repeatedly increased the New Year of the Tianjia.
Wanshou Lantern is a large -scale instrument lantern set up in the New Year of the Ming and Qing Dynasties, and it is also a scenery unique to the palace. It is used during the twenty -four to the end of the first month of the month. The volume of Wanshou Lights in the Qing Dynasty is high, with a height of more than 10 meters (three feet and three feet). The stone seat height of more than 1 meter (three feet and five inches) was made by bluestone. The lamp columns are made of giant big woods. The pillars are painted with golden dragon patterns. Each martyr’s lamp is equipped with eight lamps, and the lamp couplet is about 5 meters. Each birthday lamp is equipped with a lamp, and each hanging eight lanterns is connected to the top and bottom.
The setting of Wanshou Lantern is an important festival ceremony for the Chinese New Year’s Day of the Qing Dynasty. When tens of thousands of life lamps, the lamp columns must be set up on the Dan Hirase stone seat in front of the Qianqing Palace and Ningshou Palace. This step is to complete dozens of people. After the lamp column is set up, the lamp couplet is hung under the top of the pillar first. The lights are hung in eight directions. The content is different. On New Year’s Eve, New Year’s Day, the 11th, 14th, 15th, and 16th, the lights will be replaced and the lamp string will be changed. The lights are hung in the same direction in the same direction. Each lantern is hung, and it is made of six thousand -life lamps, a gourd lamp, and a fish bottle lamp up and down. The lanterns are made of horns and colorful decorations.
From a long -lived lamp and light samples exhibited at this time, people can see the spirit of such palace lamps. When making the Wanshou Lantern in the Qing Dynasty, it is necessary to make a small sample to send the emperor to present it. After the emperor comes out, it can only be produced and modified. The form of lamp couplet is the same as that of the contents of the Wanshou Lantern, and the proportion of the size is reduced.
Qingcheng Lantern is a type of palace lanterns used to sacrifice the ancestors of the dynasty during the Lantern Festival during the Lantern Festival. Essence Qingcheng Lantern implies merit and the end of the celebration of the merit and the success of Fulu. This type of lamp is decorated with the popular red lacquer, decorated with gold drawing, and the lamp body is auspicious (tamraga) as a whole. Taking Qingcheng Lantern as the ancestor sacrifice lamp, and hanging around the Lantern Festival in the reunion of the family, expressing the royal family in the Qing Dynasty in mind the hardships of the ancestors, inheriting the great achievements of the ancestors, the spirit of the French ancestors, and the end of chasing the far away, respectful and respectful The attitude of sincerity and filial piety. The Qing court attaches great importance to the sacrifice of Qingcheng Lantern. Regarding the number of lights on the lights and the specific location of the lights of the lights, they are clearly stipulated, and they are recorded in the form of the “Code” to become the national system. The rules of the Qingcheng Lantern Festival reiterated or modified to form the way of the Qingcheng Lantern Festival of the dynasty.
■ During the Wanshou Ceremony, he presented a flower basket lanterns, and the gourd lamp implanted Fulu Corning, which not only passed on the joy of the monarch’s longevity, but also entrusted the beautiful prayer of the national movement of the National Games.
The Emperor of the Qing Dynasty called the Wanshou Festival, and it was tied with the New Year’s Day and the winter solstice as the three most important festivals of the court in the year. During the Wanshou Ceremony, the country was jubilant and celebrated, and the lanes at the end of the streets of Beijing were dense and mighty, showing a magnificent and magnificent scenery. Long -term Wanshou shows not only to celebrate the celebration, follow the past, but also achieve the same joy with the people and stimulate the people. The treasure lanterns are in full swing, which not only conveys the joy of the monarch’s longevity, but also entrusts the beautiful wishes of the National Games.
Hua Xianrui is a commonly used theme of Wanshou Festival. In depicting the “Kangxi Wanshou Map” and “Qianlong Wanshou Map”, which records the Qing Emperor Wanshou, there are many flower baskets appearing. A flower basket lamp in the Forbidden City is used as a lamp body shape. The lamp split basket lamp body (wax cutting inside), flowers and ears of the lamp. The flower basket lamp is made of rosewood carving, which is divided into six sides. Each side is inlaid with a blue and white jade brand. The carved bats, gourds and plate intestines are carved on the same way. Essence At the edge of the outer inlet of the flower basket lamp body, a circle of nan wood carved grass dragon pattern is decorated on the upper part, and the lower part is decorated with a circle of ivory stain (green) color carving Ruyi cloud head pattern, which is very delicate. The flower branches are inserted inside this copper gilt flower mouth. There are plums, camellia, hibiscus, chrysanthemums, etc. made from tourmaline, coral, jade, crystal, etc. in the flower basket. Among the flowers, the blue chrysanthemum made of green stone is quite noticeable. Blue chrysanthemums are rare. The use of blue chrysanthemum decoration should not be created by the craftsman. The Emperor Qianlong once wrote a poem: “蕚 蕚 is obliquely obliquely, and the family name is the name of the chrysanthemum. Flowers. “Saying and finding blue chrysanthemums in the summer resort, it was very surprising.
Commonly used in Wanshou Festival Flower Basketball Lanches
In the emperor’s Wanshou celebration, the gourd lamp is also one of the commonly used lamps, and its lamp is made of gourd -style. Gourd, the homophonic “blessing” and “Lu”, with auspicious meaning such as “Great Fortune” and “Fulu Coroning”. One of them exhibited this time is the copper tire painting enamel embedded glass gourd -type lamp. Its treasure cover, light body frame, and lamp ears are made by copper tire enamel process. Under the leadership of Emperor Kangxi, enamels that were originally only applied to metal tires in the European region were combined with ceramic tires and purple sand tires in China to develop enamel porcelain, purple sand tire enamel, etc., forming a unique Chinese style. New development of enamel art.
Fish means that there are more than, Jiqing, and Yuyue Longmen, etc., and are also widely used in Wanshou Festival activities and daily furnishings. A piece of keratocolic red Pisces hanging lights on this time, divided into three parts: Bao cover, light body and lamp ear ears. Bao Gai is a door -like door, wooden tires, gold paint, and eaves. The lamp is a red Pisces style, with a shredded inlaid in the outside, the internal horn lampshade, and the golden painted fish scales and fin patterns in the keratin lampshade. The corner light production process is Chinese traditional handmade production skills. The keratin lampshade is like a tulle, windproof light, and compared to glass and other materials, its quality is more stable and difficult to burst. Compared with gauze, wood and other materials, its transparency is better and not flamed. The corner light production process uses cattle and sheep corners as raw materials. First, it is divided and scraped, and then thin, hot melt, splicing, bonding, plasticity and coloring. The red Pisces lamp is under the waves of rosewood waterwater waves under the body.
■ On important occasions of the Emperor’s wedding, palace lamps are used as decorative furnishings, but also appear in the queen makeup. It is also the ceremonial and lighting in the ceremony
The palace lantern is an indispensable content in the Qing Emperor’s wedding ceremony. The wedding of the Emperor Qing not only means the growth of individual cultivation, unity, governance, and flat, but also often accompanied by the transfer of the national regime center, but also the continuation of the dynasty rule. Therefore, it is the most solemn national ceremony of the Qing Dynasty. one. In this important occasion, the palace lamps are used as decorative furnishings, but also appear in the queen makeup, but also the ceremonial and lighting in the ceremony.
A double happy sheep horn handle that appeared at this exhibition was used in the wedding of Tongzhi Emperor’s wedding. This lamp is composed of two parts of the lampshade and the lamp, and is made of lampshade. Before the emperor entered the palace, the emperor first went to the Taihe Hall to read the queen’s gold book, Jin Bao, and accepted the ceremony of worship. In the process of the Tongzhi wedding ceremony, there were seven places such as the left door and the right door of the back of the Taihe Hall. This kind of horn handle was set up, each door was paired, and a special person was held by a special person. Feng Yingli welcomed the queen Fengyu to enter the palace and other ceremonies. The Queen of Tongzhi Arute’s Fengyu entered the palace and the gates of Daqingmen, Duanmen, and other gates of Beijing. The lamp officials were holding the lamp on both sides of the road and inside the city gate to serve the queen. After the wedding ceremony is over, this kind of corner hand can also be used as daily supplies. It is placed in various halls of the harem for lighting and decoration. According to records, it was furnished in the Kun Kun Palace, Sports and Hall, Chu Xiu Palace, Qingqing, Qingqing Yunzhai, moral hall, Pingkang room, Li Jingxuan and many other places.
Bonsai table lamp
A rosewood embedded glass dragon and phoenix Tonghe table lamp in the exhibition is the makeup content of the queen Arute’s makeup during the marriage of Tongzhi. The queen’s makeup is the dowry of the queen’s wedding. Folk brides are generally prepared by the female family, while the royal family is different. The dowry of the Queen of the Qing Dynasty was organized by the Royal (male home), which gathered the fine materials of the world. After the Queen’s makeup was ready, he was sent to the queen mansion in advance. When he was married, he lifted from the queen’s mother’s house to the palace, and walked a dowry into the palace. Because the Guangdong Customs, which was responsible for the preparation, failed to prepare and transport the table lamps to Beijing as scheduled, the Lantern Lantern of the Internal Affairs Office made a four -pair of rosewood glass heart painting five -color table lamp, and it was equipped with a fir wooden light box for it. Essence This exhibit is one of the four pairs of table lamps. Until the Guangxu period, the four pairs of table lamps were still furnished in the Dongnun Pavilion (that is, the big wedding room) of Kunning Palace. Later to the Puyi period, from the photos taken at the time, it can be seen that the lights were still on the table on the Dongnunge of Kunning Palace. From the above explanation, table lamps are likely to go through the wedding ceremony of two emperors and a Xun Emperor. To this day, in the original daily furnishings of the Palace of the Palace of the Forbidden City, this kind of light is still as old as old.
Tongzhi Golden Bao Xibao Xixi Lantern is also the content of Tongzhi Queen Makeup. One of them is a wax -cutting type, which is a combination of ingots and doubles. The surface is engraved with group life pattern, flowing moisture pattern, and double joy. It can be seen from the “Red Wedding Ceremony of Guangxu Wedding Ceremony” and “Guangxu Big Wedding Picture” that this type of candlestick is also produced in the makeup of Queen Yaenala in the Emperor Guangxu’s wedding, which should be produced by the content of the Queen Makeup of Tongzhi. Essence Outside of the Da Yuanbao Xixi Lantern, the Queen Makeup of Guangxu’s wedding also sees “Golden ingot’s Pleasant Lantern”. Its shape is basically the same, and the amount of body is slightly increased.
Author: Zhao Yingying (young scholar of the Forbidden City Museum)
Edit: Fan Xin